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Table 3 Upper and lower dental arch dimensions, according to the appropriate templates based on the Ricketts pentamorphic arches, and dental crowding

From: Possible causal relationships between competitive swimming in growing age and three-dimensional dentoalveolar development

Variable Swimmers Non-swimmers P(chi squared)
Upper arch dimensions (%)
−15 0 0 NS
−10 4 4 NS
−5 6 24 0.001
0 36 42 NS
5 0 0 NS
10 45 27 0.001
15 9 3 NS
Upper arch crowding (mm)
>−3.5 2 15 0.001
−3.0 to −0.5 49 41 NS
0 35 30 NS
0.5 to 3.0 12 14 NS
>3.5 2 0 NS
Lower arch dimensions (%)
−15 0 0 NS
−10 4 4 NS
−5 7 24 0.001
0 37 41 NS
5 0 0 NS
10 43 27 0.01
15 9 3 0.048
Lower arch crowding (mm)
>−3.5 8 22 0.005
−3.0 to −0.5 54 53 NS
0 27 18 NS
0.5 to 3.0 11 7 NS
>3.5 0 0 NS
  1. Negative, reduced dimensions/lack of space; positive, increased dimensions/excess of space.
  2. NS, not significantly different.