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Table 1 Study landmarks and reference planes

From: Quantification of skeletal asymmetries in normal adolescents: cone-beam computed tomography analysis

Landmarks   Definition Sagittal slice Axial slice Coronal slice
Dental Mx1 Maxillary central incisors Incisal contact point of the maxillary central incisors Inferior-most point Contact point Incisal embrasure
  Md1 Mandibular central incisors Incisal contact point of the mandibular central incisors Inferior-most point Contact point Incisal embrasure
  Mx3R and Mx3L Maxillary canine Cusp tip of the maxillary canine Inferior-most point First point that appears Inferior-most point
  Md3R and Mx3L Mandibular canine Cusp tip of the mandibular canine Superior-most point First point that appears Superior-most point
  Mx6R and Mx6L Maxillary first molar Mesiobuccal cusp tip of the maxillary first molar Inferior-most point First point that appears Middle-inferior-most point
  Md6R and Mx6L Mandibular first molar Buccal groove of the mandibular first molar Inferior-most point between the buccal cusps First point that appears Superior-most point in line with the buccal cusps
Midface ANS Anterior nasal spine The most anterior midpoint of the anterior nasal spine of the maxilla Lateral-most point Superior-most point First point that appears
  PNS Posterior nasal spine The most posterior midpoint of the posterior nasal spine of the palatine bone Lateral-most point Inferior-most point First point that appears
  OrR and OrL Orbitale The most inferior point on the infraorbital rim of the maxilla Inferior-most point of the infraorbital rim Anterior-most point Inferior-most point of the infraorbital rim
  FZSR and FZSL Frontozygomatic suture The most superior and medial point on the frontozygomatic suture Superior-most point Anterior-most point Medial-superior most point
  FPMR and FPML Frontal process of maxilla Intersection of the frontal process of the maxilla, frontal bone and lacrimal bone Superior-most point Anterior-most point Medial-superior most point
Mandible Me Menton The most inferior midpoint of the chin on the outline of the mandibular symphysis Inferior-most point First point that appears Middle-most point along the inferior border
  Pg Pogonion The most anterior midpoint of the chin on the outline of the mandibular symphysis Inferior-most point Superior-most point First point that appears
  GoR and GoL Gonion The midpoint on the angle of the mandible, half way between the corpus and ramus Middle-most point along the angle of the mandible Middle-inferior-most point Middle-inferior-most point
  CdSR and CdSL Condyle superior The most superior point of the condylar head Superior-most point First point that appears Superior-most point
  CdLR and CdLL Condyle lateral pole The most lateral point of the condylar head First point that appears Lateral-most point of the widest section of the condyle Lateral-most point
  CdMR and CdML Condyle medial pole The most medial point of the condylar head First point that appears Medial-most point of the widest section of the condyle Medial-most point
  CdAR and CdAL Condyle anterior The most anterior point of the condylar head Anterior-most point Middle-most point on the anterior surface of the widest section of the condyle Medial-most point
  CdPR and CdAL Condyle posterior The most posterior point of the condylar head Posterior-most point Middle-most point on the posterior surface of the widest section of the condyle N/A
Temporal bone GlSR and GlSL Glenoid fossa superior The most superior point of the glenoid fossa of the temporal bone Superior-most point First point that appears Superior-most point
  GlAR and GlAL Glenoid fossa Anterior The most inferior point of the articular eminence of the temporal bone Inferior-most point on the articular eminence Anterior-most point Superior-most point
  PoR and PoL Porion The most superior point of the external acoustic meatus Superior-most point of the external acoustic meatus First point that appears Superior-most point of the external acoustic meatus
Reference planes
Axial plane A plane that connects the most superior point of the external acoustic meatus with the most inferior point of the infraorbital rim on the right and left sides
Sagittal plane A plane constructed using paired midfacial anatomic structures (eg., the orbits, frontal process of the maxilla, frontozygomatic suture)
Coronal plane A plane constructed from the transporionic line