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Table 3 Maximum and minimum principle stress values of the reference nodes from tooth apex (×10 −4N/mm )

From: 3D FEM comparison of lingual and labial orthodontics in en masse retraction

  Maximum principle stress Minimum principle stress
Labial Lingual Labial Lingual
Central incisor 12.96 19.05 −21.92 −28.43
Lateral incisor 11.09 18.5 −20.12 −26.14
Canine 14.79 20.7 −12.56 −28.71
Second premolar 1.51 1.47 −3.35 −5.02
First molar mesial 0.78 1.69 −2.41 −3.12
First molar distal 14.23 3.14 −12.35 −3.38
Second molar mesial 0.51 0.73 −1.63 −1.39
Second molar distal 4.41 3.78 −2.84 −2.61