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Table 3 Descriptive statistics of eight bracket-archwire combinations tested for friction and roughness (AFM)

From: A new esthetic fiber-reinforced polymer composite resin archwire: a comparative atomic force microscope (AFM) and field-emission scanning electron microscope (FESEM) study

Bracket-archwire combinations Friction (N) Roughness
(mean ± SD) (average RMS)
(mean ± SD)
Clarity-FRPC −27.88 ± 33.59 324.96 ± 143.76
Clarity-NiTi −22.83 ± 34.74 166.88 ± 39.66
Gemini-FRPC 313.10 ± 802.59 310.45 ± 70.46
Gemini-NiTi 75.41 ± 159.06 183.95 ± 44.53
ICE-FRPC −71.13 ± 17.08 398.47 ± 249.04
ICE-NITi −28.48 ± 21.44 206.55 ± 70.74
SmartClip-FRPC 27.48 ± 72.85 321.16 ± 27.52
SmartClip-NiTi −6.94 ± 48.27 172.80 ± 52.49
  1. AFM, atomic force microscope; N, Newton; RMS, root mean square; FRPC, fiber-reinforced polymer composite; NiTi, nickel titanium.