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Table 3 Definition of dental landmarks and linear and angular measurements

From: Comparison between rapid and mixed maxillary expansion through an assessment of dento-skeletal effects on posteroanterior cephalometry

Dental landmarks Linear and angular measurements
1. Upper molar (Um) - the most prominent lateral point on the buccal surface of the upper first molar 1. Upper inter-molar width
2. Lower molar (Lm) - the most prominent lateral point on the buccal surface of the lower first molar 2. Lower inter-molar width
3. Upper incisor mesial (Uim) - the most mesial point of the upper central incisor crown 3. Upper inter-incisal width-mesial
4. Upper incisor apex (Uia) - the tip of the root apex of the upper central incisor 4. Upper inter-incisal width-apex
5. Upper incisor edge (Uie) - the point located on the incisal edge of the upper central incisor, centered mediolaterally 5. Maxillary incisal angle (Mia) - the angle between the major axe of upper central incisors (Uia-Uie).
  6. Upper right first molar-laterorbitale width (UR6^Lo) - the angle between the upper right first molar tangent and laterorbitale width.
  7. Upper left first molar-laterorbitale width (UL6^Lo) - the angle between the upper left first molar tangent and the laterorbitale width
  8. Maxillary first molar angle (Mfma) - the angle between the tangent of upper first molars