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Table 5 Additional included study characteristics

From: Radiologically determined orthodontically induced external apical root resorption in incisors after non-surgical orthodontic treatment of class II division 1 malocclusion: a systematic review

Article X-ray Validity Precession Extraction Class II treatment
Mechanics and additional treatment information
DeShields 1969 [[32]] PA No All class II division 1 malocclusion
Edgewise appliance
Headgear (HP, M, L) or class II elastics
RR assessed using PA
AP and vertical root movement assessed using Ceph
Compared to similar untreated pts
Hollender et al. [[33]] PA Yes All class II division 1 malocclusion
Upper 14/24 Edgewise appliance
RR assessed using PA
Eisel et al. [[34]] PA Yes 64% 48% Edgewise
No 36% 9% Only functional
43% Combined
Reukers et al. [[35]] PA Yes and no Class II malocclusion (divisions 1, 2, and subdivisions)
If extractions were done could be 2, 3, or 4 premolars extracted Edgewise vs. straight wire
Edgewise - sliding
Straight wire - loops
Class II elastics
0.022-in. Standard edgewise slot
0.018-in. Straight wire edgewise slot
Roth prescription
Not clear how many cases were treated with extractions/non-extraction
RR assessed using PA
Taner et al. [[36]] Ceph Yes Class II division 1 malocclusion
Four 1st premolar 0.018-in. Edgewise slot
RR, AP, and vertical root movement assessed using Ceph
OJ corrected with controlled tipping of upper incisors
Mavragani et al. [[40]] PA Yes Class II division I malocclusion
Mavragani et al. [[37]] At least 14/24 or upper bicuspid with lower 4s or upper bicuspid with lower 5s 0.018-in. Standard or straight wire edgewise slot
Edgewise vs. straight wire
RR assessed using PA
Compared to similar untreated pts
Liou and Chang [[38]] PA Yes Class II division I malocclusion
Mx 14/24 Edgewise appliance
En-masse Mx anterior retraction and FFA vs. FFA
Anterior retraction using NiTi coils
RR assessed using PA
Martins et al. [[39]] PA Yes Class II malocclusion
(2 Mx PM or 4 PM) 0.022-in. edgewise slot
HG and class II elastics (if necessary)
RR assessed using PA
  1. PA, Postero-Anterior Cepahalometric X-ray; HP, High-pull; M, Medium -pull; L, low-pull; RR, Root resorption; AP, Antero-Posterior; Ceph, Lateral Cephalometric X-ray; OJ, Overjet; FFA, Full Fixed Appliances; NiTi, Nickel-Titanium; HG, Headgear.