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Table 6 Description of selected studies

From: Radiologically determined orthodontically induced external apical root resorption in incisors after non-surgical orthodontic treatment of class II division 1 malocclusion: a systematic review

Article Study design Country Sample size Age atT 1(years) Extraction Class II treatment
DeShields [[32]] RS USA 52 (24 M/28 F) M = 12.6/F = 12.2 No Headgear or class II elastics
Group = 12.4 ± 0.9 Y
Hollender et al. [[33]] RS Sweden 12 (3 M/9 F) Group 1 = 3 Y 3 M Yes Edgewise
  Upper 14/24
Eisel et al. [[34]] RS Germany 44 Group 1 = 4.7 (7.1) Yes 64% 48% Edgewise
No 36% 9% Only functional
43% Combined
Reukers et al. [[35]] PS Holland Started 149 (64 M/85 F) Group 1 = 2 Y 4 M ± 1 Y 2 M Yes and no 29 Edgewise
If extractions were done could be 2, 3, or 4 premolars extracted 32 Straight wire Class II elastics
Finished 61
Excluded 2 - moved 7 - early debond 79 - poor radiographs
Taner et al. [[36]] RS Turkey 27 Group 1 = 3.6 ± 2.5 Y Yes Edgewise
4 bicuspids
Mavragani et al. [[40]] Mavragani et al. [[37]] RS Norway 80 Edgewise 13.8 ± 0.7 Y Yes 40 Edgewise
Edgewise (22 M/18 F) Straight wire At least 14/24 or upper bicuspid with lower 4s or upper bicuspid with lower 5s 40 Straight wires
13.1 ± 0.7 Y
Straight wire (20 M/20 F)
Liou and Chang [[38]] RS Taiwan 50 Group I = 26.5 ± 5.5 Y Yes I-30 Minscrew + FFA
Group I (0 M/30 F) Group II = 22.5 ± 1.6 Y Mx 14/24 II-20 FFA
Group II (4 M/16 F)
Martins et al. [[39]] RS Brazil 28 I = 13.4 ± 2.4 Y Yes Edgewise
I (16 M:12 F) (2 Mx PM or 4 PM) Headgear and class II elastics (if necessary)
II N/A mixed data
  1. RS, retrospective study; PS, prospective study; RCT, randomized controlled trial; Y, years; M, males; F, females. M, Months; FFA, Full Fixed Appliances; N/A, Not Applicable; PM, premolar.