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Table 7 Descriptive statistics of selected studies

From: Radiologically determined orthodontically induced external apical root resorption in incisors after non-surgical orthodontic treatment of class II division 1 malocclusion: a systematic review

Article Treatment duration (months) X-ray Root resorption (RR) RR - specific tooth and severity Additional information
DeShields [[32]] M = 20.5 PA 51/52 cases had resorption in at least 1 Mx incisor Tooth 12a Treatment time edgewise (months)
  F = 22.5     Grade 0 - 1/52  Male = 11.6
  G = 21.6 ± 5.2   Severitya  Grade 1 - 4/52  Female = 10.1
     Grade 0 - 12/208  Grade 2 - 23/52  Mean = 10.8 ± 5.7
     Grade 1 - 24/208  Grade 3 - 21/52 Headgear time (if used) (months)
     Grade 2 - 82/208  Grade 4 - 3/52  Male = 16.5
     Grade 3 - 79/208 Tooth 11a  Female = 17.0
     Grade 4 - 11/208  Grade 0 - 4/52  Mean = 16.8 ± 7.6
     Grade 5 - 0/208  Grade 1 - 7/52 Class II elastics (if used) (months)
    Gender-severitya  Grade 2 - 19/52  Male = 7.5
     4 M - grade 2  Grade 3 - 17/52  Female = 5.2
     17 M - grade 3  Grade 4 - 5/52  Mean = 6.3 ± 5.6
     3 M - grade 4 Tooth 21a  
     1 F - grade 1  Grade 0 - 3/52  
     7 M - grade 2  Grade 1 - 5/52  
     17 F - grade 3  Grade 2 - 26/52  
     3 F - grade 4  Grade 3 - 17/52  
      Grade 4 - 1/52  
     Tooth 22a  
      Grade 0 - 4/52  
      Grade 1 - 8/52  
      Grade 2 - 14/52  
      Grade 3 - 24/52  
      Grade 4 - 2/52  
Hollender et al. [[33]] Mean = 18 PA Grade I or II RRb Tooth (grade 1 or 2 RR)b Mx anterior teeth most affected
 60/120 Teeth  16 - 3/12 48/60
Severity  15 - 3/12 Lateral incisor
 Grade 1 - 53/60  13 - 5/12 22/24
 Grade 2 - 7/60  12 - 11/12 No grade 3 resorption
 11 - 7/12
 21 - 6/12
 22 - 11/12
 23 - 8/12
 25 - 3/12
 26 - 3/12
Eisel et al. [[34]] 38 ± 20 (total sample) PA Mean four upper incisors: Not described Only 29 patients had periapicals to quantify RR. No explanation why only these ones
 Up to 1 mm, 21 individuals
 Between 1 and 2 mm, 6 individuals
 Between 2 and 3 mm, 1 individual
 More than 3 mm, 1 individual
Maximum for either upper incisor
 Up to 1 mm, 12 individuals
 Between 1 and 2 mm 6 individuals
 Between 2 and 3 mm 6 individuals
 More than 4 mm 5 individuals
RR dx through Linge and Linge method [[12]]
Reukers et al. [[35]] Overall = 20.4 ± 6.0 PA Mean degree of resorption   Statistical test showed no difference in root resorption between straight wire and edgewise
Straight wire = 21.6 ± 4.8
 Overall – 7.8 ± 6.9%
Edgewise = 19.2 ± 6.0  Straight wire - 8.2 ± 6.4%
 Edgewise - 7.5 ± 7.6% Study only focused on root resorption of Mx central incisors
Prevalence
 Overall - (40/61) 65.6%
 Straight wire - (24/32) 75%
 Edgewise - (16/29) 55%
Taner et al. [[36]] 28.1 ± 9.0 Ceph Mean RR N/A N/A
2.1 ± 1.6 mm
Mavragani et al. [[40]] N/A PA Same data as 2002 Same data as 2002 Same data as 2002
Mavragani et al. [[37]] N/A PA Tooth/median Mean RR Root elongation was noted for 50/280 teeth
 Control  12 - 1.86 ± 0.26 mm
 12 - 17.03 mm  11 - 1.82 ± 0.26 mm Age at T 1 was significantly higher among patients showing root shortening of lateral incisors than those showing root elongation (p < 0.05)
 11 - 16.79 mm  21 - 1.93 ± 0.25 mm
 21 - 16.69 mm  22 - 1.78 ± 0.33 mm
 22 - 17.48 mm Shortened roots Roots that were incompletely developed before treatment reached a significantly greater length than those that were fully developed at the T 1
Shortened  12 - 59/72 teeth
 12 - 14.55 mm  11 - 60/72 teeth
 11 - 15.32 mm  21 - 58/67 teeth
 21 - 15.30 mm  22 - 53/69 teeth
 22 - 13.77 mm
Elongated Elongated roots
 12 - 17.36 mm  12 - 13/72 teeth
 11 - 17.56 mm  11 - 12/72 teeth
 21 - 15.52 mm  21 - 9/67 teeth
 22 - 16.85 mm  22 - 16/69 teeth
Liou and Chang [[38]] En-masse PA Group I Group I Group I (ANB 7.1° ± 1.9°)
(Group I) 28.3 ± 7.3
FFA  16% to 20% (2.5 to 2.8 mm)  12 - 20.0 ± 7.3% (2.7 ± 1.0 mm) Group II (ANB 3.2° ± 2.9°)
(Group II) 22.7 ± 5.0 Group 2 Apical RR of Mx central incisor was significantly correlated to the duration of treatment (p = 0.026) but not to the amount of en-masse retraction, intrusion, or palatal tipping of Mx incisors
 13.4% to 14.4% (2.1 to 2.3 mm)  11 - 19.6 ± 6.6% (2.8 ± 1.0 mm)
 21 - 16.8 ± 8.8% (2.5 ± 1.4 mm) Mx lateral incisors was significantly greater in group I than in group II
 22 - 16.0 ± 9.2% (2.5 ± 1.5 mm)
Group II
 12 - 14.4 ± 7.3% (2.1 ± 1.4 mm)
 11 - 14.4 ± 8.5% (2.3 ± 1.7 mm)
 21 - 13.6 ± 7.6% (2.1 ± 1.5 mm)
 22 - 13.4 ± 7.3% (2.1 ± 1.3 mm)
Martins et al. [[39]] 28.0 ± 9.4 PA RR severityc   
 0 = 0/112 (0%)
 1 = 19/112 (16.96%)
 2 = 39/112 (34.83%)
 3 = 47/112 (41.96%)
 4 = 7/112 (6.25%)
  1. aGrade 0 - no resorption, grade 1 - possible resorption (some indistinctness to apical outline), grade 2 - definite resorption (apical outline was definitely irregular, but the root was not shortened or blunted), grade 3 - mild apical blunting (<3 mm), grade 4 - moderate apical blunting (>3 mm but <1/3 root length, grade 5 - severe blunting (>1/3 of the root length loss); b0 - no visible resorption, 1 - apical resorption ≤2 mm, 2 - apical resorption >2 mm ≤1/3 of the root length, 3 - >1/3 of the root length; c0 - no root resorption, 1 - mild resorption, normal length, and only displaying irregular contour, 2 - moderate resorption, small area of root loss with the apex exhibiting an almost straight contour, 3 - accentuated resorption, loss of almost 1/3 root length, 4 - extreme resorption, loss of more than 1/3 of root length. MX, Maxillary; M, Months; RR, Root Resorption; PA, Periapical.