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Table 2 Study characteristics

From: Effect of orthodontic forces on cytokine and receptor levels in gingival crevicular fluid: a systematic review

Ref no. F T/O F Mech Mech/O appli React Tot Du No. of obs Time obs Bas Bas (same as cont)
22. 50 and 150 g Cont F Retr- se Ni-Ti spg N 2 m 6 0, 1, 24 h, 1 wk, 1 m, 2 m 0 N
23. 250 g Intrrup F Retr- se E-chain NM 168 h 4 0, 1 h, 24 h, 168 h 0 N
24 4, 13, 26, 52, or 78 kPa Cont F Retr- se Vert loop act. with Ni-Ti spg N 84 d 9 to 10 0, 1, 3, ±7, 14, 28, 42, 56, 70, 84 d 0 N
25 150 g Cont F Retr- se Ni-Ti spg N 3 m 6 before act 0, after act 1 h, 24 h, 168 h, 1 m, 3 m 0 N
26 NM Interm F Mx expans Hyrax screw Y 81 d 10 0, 14, 25, 32, 33, 39, 46, 53, 60, 81 d 14 d Y
27 SD-NM LD-50 cN SD - intrrup F LD - cont F SD - space gaining LD - Retr- se SD-E - separt LD - Ni-Ti spg N SD - 24 h LD - 4 m SD - 2 LD - 5 SD - 0 h, 24 h LD - 0, T1, 1 m, 2 m, 3 m 0 N
28 HG - RDG-NM HG - cont F RDG - heavy Intrrup F Retr- se HG - hybrid retract RDG - C distalizer HG-N RDG-Y 1 wk 4 Before act (0), after act 1 h, 24 h, 1 wk 0 Y
29 Level-NS Cont F Level Retr- se 0.014” NiTi wire Sentalloy c.c. spg N 6 m 21 d 7 Level - 0, 7 d, 21 d, 3 m After 6 m Retr - 6 m (0), 7 d, 21 d Level - 0 Retr - 6 m-0 Y
Retr - 150 g Cont F
30 250 g Intrrup F Retr- se E-chain NM 168 h 4 0, 1, 24, 168 h 0 N
31 Level-NS Cont F Level Retr- se 0.014” NiTi wire Sentalloy c.c. spg NM 6 m 21 d 6 Level - 0, 7 d, 21 d After 6 m Retr - 6 m (0), 7 d, 21 d Level - 0 Retr - 6 m-0 Y
Retr - 150 g Cont F
32 250 g Intrrup F Retr- se E-chain N 7 d 4 0, 1, 24, 168 h 0 N
33 NM Intrrup F Space gaining E - separt N 14 d 5 −7 d, 0 d, 1 h, 1 d, 7 d 0 N
34 250 g Intrrup F Retr- se E-chain N 168 h 8 0, 1, 4, 8, 24, 72, 120, 168 h 0 N
35 60, 18, 120, 240 g Cont F Retr- se Vert loop act. with Ni-Ti spg N 112 d 11 −28, −14, 0, 1, 3, 14, 28, 42, 56, 70, 84 d 0 N
36 Mx C - 115 g Cont F Retr- se Ricketts seg arch N 30 d 6 0, 1 h, 24 h, 6 d, 10 d, 30 d 0 Y
Md C - 90 g
37 E1: 100 g E1: Cont Retr E1: NiTi spg E1: N 3 wk 10 0, 1 h, 24 h, 1 wk, repeat twice 0 N
E2: NM E2: Intrrup E2: screw attached retractor E2: 2
38 70 cN Cont Tipping bu/la offset N 24 h 2 0, 24 h 0 N
39 NM Interm F Mx expans Hyrax screw Y 81 d 11 0, 14, 18, 25, 32, 33, 39, 46, 53, 60, 81 d 0 Y
40 13 to 4 kPa Cont Retr V loop act by spg N 84 d 9 0, 1, 3 d, 14 d intervals until 84 d 0 N
41 2 to 2.5 N Intrrup Retr E-chain N 7 d 4 0, 1, 24, 168 h 0 N
42 250 g Intrrup Retr E-chain N 7 d 4 0, 1, 24, 168 h 0 N
19 100 g Cont Labial tipping La offset in NiTi wire N 7 d 5 0, 1, 24, 48, 168 h 0 N
43 NM NM NM Alignment NM 6 m 3 0, 1 m, 6 m 0 N
44 150 g Cont Retr NiTi spg N 45 d 6 0, 2, 4, 7, 30, 45 d 0 N
45 130 g Intrrup Retr E-chain N 24 h 2 0, 24 h 0 N
46 NM NM NM Bracket placement N 3 m 4 0, 24 h, 1 wk, 3 m 0 Y
47 100 g Cont Retr NiTi c.c. spg N 42 d 4 −10 wk, 0, 4 h, 7 d, 42 d 0 N
48 NM Intrrup Space gain Elastic separt N 7 d 3 0, 24 h, 7 d 0 N
49 150 g Cont Retr V - loop and NiTi c.c. spg N 87 d 7 −7 d, 0, 1 h, 24 h, 14, 21, 80 d 0 Y
50 NM Intrrup Space gin Elastic separt N 14 d 6 −7 d, 0, 1 min, 1 h, 1 d, 7 d 0 N
51 120 g Cont Retr NiTi c.c. spg N 21 d 6 1 h, 24 h, 48 h, 168 h, 14 d, 21 d 1 h N
52 150 g Cont Retr Sentalloy c.c. spg N 3 m 7 0, 1, 24, 48 h, 7 d, 21 d, 3 m 0 N
53 100 g Cont F Retr- se Ni-Ti c.c. spg N 28 d 4 0, 1 d, 7 d, 28 d 0 Y
54 150 g Cont Retr Sentalloy c.c. spg N 3 m 7 0, 1, 24, 48 h, 7 d, 21 d, 3 m 0 N
55 NM Cont Alignment 0.014 NiTi wire N 7 d 8 0, 1, 2, 3, 4, 5, 6, 7 d 0 Y
56 13, 26, 52 kPa Cont Retr V loop act by spg N 84 d 9 0, 1, 3 d, 14 d intervals until 84 d 0 N
57 NM Cont Alignment 0.014 - NiTi, 0.016 × 0.022 NiTi, 0.019 × 0.025 NiTi N 20 wk 6 0, 3 wk, 6 wk, 12 wk, 2 wk 0 N
58 NM HG: band intrrup F Bond - Cont F NHG - Cont F Level 0.014 - in NiTi wire 0.016 × 0.022-in s.s. N 70 wk HG: band-3 HG; bond-2 NHG-2 HG: band - 18, 0, 52 wk HG: band - 18 wk Y
HG: bond - 0, 52 wk Bond - 0 wk
NHG - 0, 52 wk NHG - 0 wk
59 200 g Cont Retr Sentalloy c.c. spg N 1 m 5 0,1 h, 24 h, 168 h, 1 m 0 Y
  1. Ref No. reference number, F force, T/O type of, Mech mechanics, Mech/O mechanics of, appli appliance, React reactivation, Tot total, Du duration, N number, obs observation, Bas baseline, min minutes, g grams, Intrrup interrupted, Cont continuous, interm intermittent, Retr retraction, se segmented, spg spring, E-chain elastomeric chain, NiTi nitinol, cont control, NM not mentioned, y year, d day, m month, h hour, Level leveling, separt separator, act activated, HG headgear, NHG non-headgear, bu buccal, la labial, HG hybrid retract, RDG rapid canine distalizer.