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Table 5 Result characteristics

From: Effect of orthodontic forces on cytokine and receptor levels in gingival crevicular fluid: a systematic review

Ref no. Mediators Stats analy appld Confd Drop outs Up/down reg Pk Sec outcm r Stat sign readings
22. IL-1β ANOVA and Friedman and paired t Y NM Inc 24 h, 2 m 1. Mean tot prot conc - 12 mg/ml C mov with less pain and inflam with 50 g than with 150 g of F Inc at 24 h and 2 m in 150 g F compd to cont
2. VAS score of 150 g > 50 g at 24 h
23. Leptin Wilcoxon, Friedman NM NM Dec 168 h NM NM b/w bas and 168 h in exp T
24 IL-1β, IL-1RA ANCOVA Y Y Fluct NM For same stress and grw status, max diff in speed were 4.2:1 for 13 kPa in growers and 4.8:1 for 26 kPa in Nn-growers Higher speeds of T move sign assoc with gen type 2 at IL-1β (+3,954), higher AI, and lower IL-1RA in GCF NM
25 OPG Shapiro Wilk’s Normality, Wilcoxon, Friedman, Z NM NM Dec NM NM NM Dec at 1 h, 24 h, 168 h, 1 m, 3 m compd with bas
26 IL-1β, βG 1-tailed paired Student t Y NM Inc M-010 PM-07 CI-08 βG sign inc for M - 07 to 010 PM-07,08,010 CI - 06, 07, 010 and dec at O2 for M, PM, CI Stronger F cause higher levels of both IL-1β and βG IL-1β sign inc for M - O5 to O10 for PM-O6 to 010.
For CI - 04, 06, 07, 09, 010 and dec at O2 for M, PM, CI
27 IL-1β, IL-6, IL-8, TNF-α Mann-Whitney, Kruskal-Wallis Y NM Inc SD - 24 h LD - T1 NM NM In SD IL-1β, IL-8, TNF-α inc, In LD inc of IL-8 at T1
28 TNF-α Intergrp - Mann-Whitney U
Intragrp - Wilcoxon signed rank
NM NM Inc 24 h PI, PD, BOP sign higher in HG GCF vol at 1 h and 24 h in the RDG > HG NM HG - a stat sign dec at 1 wk compd to 24 h.
RDG - inc at 1 h stat sign compd to initial value. Inc in RDG at 1 h > HG
29 IL-1β,-TNF-α 1-way paired t, Mann-Whitney U NM NM Inc 7 d, 21 d GCF vol inc on 7 d and 21 d of level and retr NM TNF –α diff b/w 3 m (level) and 6 m (bf retr)
30 RANKL, OPG 3-way analysis of variance Tukey’s honest sign diff Y NM RANKL- Inc OPG- Dec 24 h avg amt of TM for J > A after 168 h mean vol of GCF in A sign lower than J GCF vol correl with inflam state RANKL at 24 h - sign inc levels both in J & A. RANKL and OPG in A < J OPG at 24 h sign dec levels both in J & A. RANKL/OPG for exp T sign > cont after 24 h RANKL/OPG in A < J
31 IL-2, 6, 8 1-way paired t Mann-Whitney U NM NM IL-2-inc IL-2 - 7 d, 21 d of level IL-8 - 7 d of level and 7 d, 21 d of retr GCF vol greater on 7 d and 21 d of level and retr NM IL-8 stat sign dec on 7 d of level
IL-6-N change
32 RANKL, OPG Mann-Whitney U NM NM RANKL - inc OPG - dec 24 h In vitro compres F for 3, 6, 9, 12, 24, 48 h, RANKL was sign inc in stress (+) grp N sign diff in mean vol of GCF at 24 h b/w exp T and cont T Mean RANKL values after 24 h in Exp > cont-mean OPG values after 24 h in Exp < cont
33 IL-1β, SP, PGE2 Paired t multiple linear regression analysis Y NM Inc 1 d VAS inc sign 1 h and 24 h after insert of sepr and returned to bas after 7 d SP and PGE2 sign higher at 1 d and 7 d NM IL-1β of exp > cont at 1 h, 1 d, 7 d
34 SP, IL-1β Mann-Whitney U Spearman’s signed rank NM NM Inc NM Avg amt of TM was 1.5 ± 0.4 mm over 168 h-N sign diff in tot prot level at any of exp time periods mean SP levels inc after 8, 24, and 72 h in Exp N sign diff in mean GCF vol b/w exp and cont T mean IL-1β levels inc after 8, 24, and 72 h in Exp
35 IL-1β, IL-1RA ANCOVA Y NM NM 3 d Inc lag phase with Mx C moved by 4, 13, and 26 kPa.
By 52 kPa, distinct lag phase at 3 d, 14 d
Vt vs avg AI in GCF from D sites of Mx C showed a + ve relationship (R2 = 0.44) mean AI for C moved with 52 kPa sign > all other mean AIs
36 IL-8 Mann-Whitney U Wilcoxon NM NM Inc 6 d at tension site, and 1st 24 h at pressure site GCF vol greater at tension and pressure sites at 24 h and 30 d NM IL-8 at both sites inc at 1 h of F. B/w 24
hand 6 d, inc at tension site. IL-8 inc
among grps b/w 0 & 1 h stats sign
37 IL-1β, PGE2 Intra-grp: ANOVA Intergrp: 1-way ANOVA NM NM Inc 24 h PGE2 inc at 24 h > BS in CF and IF. PGE2 inc in CF and IF at 24 h > cont In CF,PGE2 > cont at 168 h, then fall. In IF, PGE2 remain high for a wk. NM IL-1β inc at 24 h > BS, max at 24 h after 1st act in IF.
In IF, IL-1β inc 24 h after 1st reactivn > cont
In CF and IF, IL-1β inc at 24 h > cont
38 PGE-2, IL-6, GMCSF Paired t (intragrp) independent t (J and A) NM NM Inc 24 h Median GCF vol. in J > A. In J and A PGE2 inc at 24 h > BS NM InJ, IL-6, GMCSF inc at 24 h > BS
39 IL-1β, βG 1-tailed paired Student t Y NM Inc IL-1β - 81 d βG - 46 d βG - significantly dec 14 d after prophy. Exp > cont at 46 d NM IL-1β significantly dec 14 d after prophy. Exp > cont at 4 d, 33 to 81 d
40 IL-1β, IL-1RA, AI Least square regression Pearson product-moment Correl coefficient NM NM Inc 3 d C retr at 1.27 and 0.87 mm/m for 13 and 4 kPa of stress, resp +ve corr of velocity and AI from D > M. IL-1β at M > Cont (13 kPa) IL-1RA at D > M and Cont (4 and 13 kPa)
Tot prot at M and D > Cont (4 and 13 kPa)
41 TGF-β Student’s t Y NM Inc 24 h C retr was 1.1 at 0.1 mm/168 h NM TGF-β at exp site at 24 h > bas, Cont
42 IL-1β, IL-6, TNF-α, EGF, β2-μG Student’s t Y NM Inc 24 h β-2 MG inc at 24 h > BS or 1 h NM Intra-grp in Exp: IL-1β inc at 24 h > bas, IL-6 inc at 24 h > bas or 168 h, TNF-α inc at 24 h > bas or 168 h, EGF inc at 24 h > bas
β-2 MG in exp at 24 h > ant cont   Intergrp btw cont and exp: IL-1β inc in exp > cont at 24 h, mean IL-6 in exp > ant cont, TNF-α in exp at 24 h > ant cont, EGF in exp at 24 h > ant cont
19 IL-1β, PGE 2-way analy of variance
paired t
NM NM Inc 24 h PGE inc in exp > cont at 24 h, 48 h NM IL-1β inc in exp > cont at 1 h, 24 h
PGE inc at 24 h > BS, 168 h   IL-1β inc at 24 h > bas, 48 h, 168 h
43 IL-1β, TNF-α, NO Friedman, Wilcoxon test Spearman Rank Correl Analy. Y NM Inc 6 m PI, GI, PD inc at 1 m > BS, 6 m > BS NM IL-1β inc at 6 m > bas
44 RANKL, OPG Repeated measures ANOVA NM NM Inc 48 h PM retr −3.73 ± 1.08 mm (laser grp) and 2.71 ± 0.9 mm (Cont grp) Max mean retr v(t) btw 0 and 48 h. Pain intensity pk at 48 h. NM RANKL - inc at 48 h > bas
RANKL/OPG - inc at 48 h > bas
45 RANKL, HSP70, ANOVA post hoc Fisher’s LSD Y NM Inc 24 h Amylase activity in saliva inc at 24 h at exp > cont NM RANKL inc in 24 h > cont
46 MMP-8, IL-1β Paired-sample t NM NM Inc 3 m NM MMP-8 dec at 24 h, inc at 3 m IL-1β inc at 3 m
47 GM-CSF, IF-γ, IL-1β, IL-2, IL-4, IL-5, IL-6, IL-8, IL-10 and TNFα, MMP-9, TIMP-1 and 2, RANKL, OPG Paired non-parametric Kruskall-Wallis. Spearman Rank Sum analy. Y NM Inc 4 h +ve corr of GCF vol and plaque index at 0 at(t), (comp) +ve corr of TNF-α, IL-1β, IL-8, GM-CSF MMP-9 and TIMP levels to speed of OTM at 4 h in Exp corr of IL-1β, IL-8, TNF-α inc to plaque-induced inflam at 0 at (comp). Exp - IL-1β, IL-8, TNFα inc from 4 h to 42 d. RANKL - inc after 42 d
Exp - TIMP 1 and 2 inc at 4 h, 7 d and 42 d, MMP-9 inc at 4 h, 7 d.
Compr-MMP −9 inc at 4 h and 7 d. TIMP-1 inc at 4 h and TIMP-2 at 7 d.
Exp > cont: MMP-9 inc at 0, 4 h at compr, TIMP-2 inc at 0 at Exp, compr
48 RANK, OPG, OPN, TGF-β1 Friedman Dunn’s multiple comparisons as post hoc Y NM Inc 7 d NM NM RANK - inc in 7 d in exp, compres > cont OPG - cont > compres site at 24 h. TGF-β - inc in compres > cont at 7 d.
49 MMP-3, MMP-9, MMP-13, MIP-1β, MCP-1, RANTES Friedman, Mann-Whitney Y NM NM NM MMPs inc at 1 h, dec at 24 h. GCF vol at (comp) > (t) at 21 d NM NM
50 IL-1β, SP, PGE2 SPSS 13.0 paired t-test Wilcoxon paired signed rank NM NM Inc 1 d Exp > Cont: NM Exp > Cont:
At D, SP inc at 1 d, 7 d At M, IL-1β inc at 1 min, 1 h, 1 d, 7 d.
At D, PGE2 inc at 1 min, 1 h, 1 d, 7 d. At D, IL-1β at 1 h, 1 d, 7 d.
At M, PGE2, SP, inc at 1 min, 1 h, 1 d, 7 d > BS. Exp > bas: At M, IL-1β inc at 1 min, 1 h, 1 d, 7 d. At D, IL-1β inc
At D, SP, PGE2 inc at 1 d, 7 d > BS. at 1 h, 1 d, 7 d.
51 IL-1β Wilcoxon signed-rank Mann-Whitney U NM NM Inc 24 h IL-1β at 24 h, 48 h at exp > implant NM IL-1β inc at 24, 48 h > bas IL-1β dec after 24 h, at 48 h, 168 h, 14 d, 21 d.
52 IL-2, IL-6, IL-8 1-way ANOVA ( interG) Dunnett’s t Tukey’s NM NM Inc 24 h IL-8 inc at 24 h, 48 h in MS grp NM IL-2 inc at 24 h > bas
IL-6 inc at 3 m in MS grp   IL-8 inc in Exp at 1 h, 24 h, 48 h
53 CCL-2 (MCP1), CCL-3, CCL-5 (RANTES), IL-8 (CXCL8), IL-1α, IL-1β, IL-6, TNF-α ANOVA Tukey’s post hoc paired and unpaired t Y NM Inc 24 h MOPs inc the rate of C retr by 2.3-fold compd to cont and contr C - VAS sign at 24 h for Exp and Con MOPs sign inc cyt and chemokine expression All cyt and chemo inc in both Cont and Exp at 24 h IL-1 inc also at 28 d
54 TNF-α Paired t (intra G)
1-way ANOVA (interG) Dunnett’s t Tukey’s
NM NM Inc 24 h NM NM TNF-α inc at 24 h
55 TNF-α, IL-1β, IL-8 1-way ANOVA Paired student t NM NM TNF-α, IL-1β, IL-8 inc in 1 to 2 d of level 1 d GCF vol inc in 1 to 3 d of leveling NM TNF-α, IL-1β, IL-8 inc in 1 to 2 d of level
56 IL-1β, IL-1RA, AI Least square Regression Pearson product-moment Correl coefficient NM NM AI = 1, then v(t) is not zero NM C retr at day 84 for 13, 26, 52 kPa were 4.14 ± 0.19, 6.36 ± 1.32, 5.66 ± 1.38 mm resp v(t) affected by AI in GCF, stress and IL-1 gene cluster Faster v(t) seen in 26 kPa, higher GCF and allele 1 homozygosity
57 RANKL, OPG, IL-1, IL-1RA, MMP-9 Repeated measures models Y NM IL-1/IL-1 + IL-1RA - dec
A - 6 wk NM NM IL-1RA in adults exp > cont at 3 wk. Dec
in ratio of (IL-1/[IL-1 + IL-1RA]). Inc in
ratio of RANKL to OPG (RANKL/[RANKL + OPG]). RANKL to OPG inc at 6 wk in ado, at 3 wk in A, OPG in ado at Exp < cont at 6 wk
Ado - 3 wk
58 IL-2, IL-4, IL-6, IL-8, IL-10, GM-CSF, IFN-γ, TNF-α, MCP-1, IP-10 Stepwise regression NM NM NM NM NM IL-6 levels at bas predictive of GCF flows after 1 y of ortho t/t No sign change
59 OPG, RANKL 2-way ANOVA.
A Bonferroni f
NM NM OPG inc in M, dec in D at 1 h 1 h NM NM OPG inc on M, dec in D at 1 h
  1. Ref No. reference number, Stats statistically, analy analysis, appld applied, Confd confounders, reg regulation, Pk peak, Sec secondary, outcm outcome, correl correlation, sign significant, Y yes, N no, NM not mentioned, inc increase, dec decrease, fluct fluctuated, h hour, m month, tot total, prot protein, conc concentration, mg milligram, ml milliliter, g gram, > greater than, < less than, VAS visual analog scale, C canine, mov movement, b/w between, CF continuous force, IF interrupted force, and and, F force, Assoc associated, gen genetic, GCF gingival crevicular fluid, compd compared, bas baseline, IL interleukin, βG beta glucoronidase, TNF-α tumor necrosis factor alpha, SD short duration, LD long duration, Diff difference, vol volume, retr retraction, correl correlation, inflam inflammation, Avg average, cyt cytokine, chemo chemokine, knwn known, MOPs micro-osteoperforations, PI plaque index, BOP bleeding on probing, exp experimental, cont control, Exp experimental tooth, ant antagonistic, Avg average, Mx maxilla, contr contralateral, differen differentiation, sepr separator, grp group, compres compression, kPa kilopascal, max maximum, grw growth, T tooth, Oc osteoclast, RDG rapid canine distalization group, HG hybrid reactor group. v(t) velocity of tooth movement, M mesial, D distal, level leveling, retr retraction.
  2. CSFs colony-stimulating factors, IFNs interferons, MCSF macrophage colony-stimulating factor, SP substance P, IL-1β interleukin-1 beta, TNF-α tumor necrosis factor-alpha, TGF β transforming growth factor-beta, OPG osteoprotegerin, OPN osteopontin, RANKL receptor activator of nuclear factor kappa-B ligand, RANK receptor activator of nuclear factor kappa-B, GM-CSF granulocyte-macrophage colony-stimulating factor, βG beta glucuronidase, PGE2 prostaglandin E2, IL-1RA interleukin receptor antagonist, MCP monocyte chemoattractant protein, MMP matrix metalloproteinases, MIP macrophage inflammatory protein, TIMP tissue inhibitor of metalloproeintases, HSP heat shock proteins, NO nitric oxide, AI activity index.