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Table 2 Paired sample t -test comparing pre-treatment (T1) and post-functional (T2) values

From: Cephalometric study to test the reliability of anteroposterior skeletal discrepancy indicators using the twin block appliance

  Mean N Standard deviation Standard error of the mean Mean difference p value
ANB angle (T1) 7.36 25 1.469 0.294 −3.84 <0.0001*
ANB angle (T2) 3.52 25 1.388 0.278
Wits appraisal (T1) 6.72 25 2.092 0.418 −5.46 <0.0001*
Wits appraisal (T2) 1.26 25 1.849 0.37
β angle (T1) 19.12 25 3.153 0.631 8.56 <0.0001*
β angle (T2) 27.68 25 3.024 0.605
APDI (T1) 70.2 25 3.64 0.728 7.76 <0.0001*
APDI (T2) 77.96 25 3.702 0.74
App-Bpp (T1) 12.52 25 2.801 0.56 −4.72 <0.0001*
App-Bpp (T2) 7.8 25 2.179 0.436
YEN angle (T1) 114.12 25 4.799 0.96 4.8 <0.0001*
YEN angle (T2) 118.92 25 5.227 1.045
W angle (T1) 49.52 25 3.38 0.676 4.2 <0.0001*
W angle (T2) 53.72 25 3.361 0.672
  1. T1, pre-treatment; T2, post-functional; *p ≤ 0.05 = significant.