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Table 2 Characteristics of included studies

From: Effect of non-surgical maxillary expansion on the nasal septum deviation: a systematic review

Study Baseline characteristics of treatment group Baseline characteristics of control group RME protocol Measurement of the nasal septum Results
Farronato et al. [15] N = 100 Ages 5–9 years (mean = 7.62 years, SD = 0.7) Nasal septal deviation (NSD) of more than 1 mm as seen on PA radiographs (amplitude of deviation) N = 40 Ages 5–9 years (mean = 7.62, SD = 0.7)
Not treated with RME Not clear if they presented with NSD
Hyrax expander
1 turn (0.25 mm) twice a day for 15 days
Amplitude of NSD measured on frontal/PA cephalograms as millimeter distance between midline axis of symmetry and deviated nasal septum.
Measurements taken before appliance insertion (T0), at appliance removal (T1) and 6 months after appliance removal (T2)
94 % reduction in amplitude of NSD from RME in the middle and lower third of the nasal cavity from T0 to T2
Altug-Atac et al. [21] N = 10 Ages 13–17 years
(mean = 15 years)
Nasal septal angle (from midsagittal plane = 1.05° (SD = 0.91))
N = 10 Ages 13–17 years (mean = 15 years)
Not treated with RME Nasal septal angle 0.78 (SD = 1.23)
Occlusal coverage, Hyrax type expander with 2 turns a day for 2–3 weeks Measured in degrees as angle between the nasal septum midsagittal plane on frontal/PA cephalograms. Measurements taken prior to appliance insertion and after 12 weeks active expansion No significant positional change in nasal septum from RME