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Table 1 Definition of airway boundaries

From: Computational fluid dynamics analysis of the upper airway after rapid maxillary expansion: a case report

  Anterior boundary Posterior boundary Superior boundary Inferior boundary
Nasal cavity Line connecting the ANS to the tip of the nasal bone Line extending from S to the PNS Line connecting N to S Line extending from ANS to PNS
Nasopharynx Line extending from S to the PNS Line extending from S to the tip of the odontoid process Line extending from S to the tip of the odontoid process Line extending from PNS to the tip of the odontoid process
Oropharynx Line extending from PNS to the tip of the epiglottis Line extending from the tip of the odontoid process to the posterior superior border of CV4 Line extending from PNS to the tip of the odontoid process Line extending from the base of the epiglottis to the posterior superior border of CV4
Hypopharynx Line extending from the base of the epiglottis to the inferior border of the symphysis Line extending from the posterior–superior corner of CV4 to the posterior–inferior corner of CV4 Line extending from the base of the epiglottis to the posterior superior border of CV4 Line extending from the posterior–inferior corner of CV4 to the inferior border of the symphysis
  1. ANS anterior nasal spine, PNS posterior nasal spine, S sella, N nasion, CV cervical vertebrae