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Table 1 Surface roughness, Young’s modulus, and maximum force of bent/straight wires before and after immersion

From: Synergistic effect of wire bending and salivary pH on surface properties and mechanical properties of orthodontic stainless steel archwires

Groups Surface roughness ×10−2 (μm) Mean flexural young’s modulus (GPa) Mean Maximum force (N)
Ra-value Ra Rz
1 (pH 5.6) Bent 24.1 ± 4.5 30.2 ± 5.7 117.3 ± 43.4 295 ± 46.98 32.5 ± 3.24
Straight 11.1 ± 2.5 505 ± 38.34 27.9 ± 1.07
2 (pH 6.6) Bent 18.3 ± 3.8 11.5 ± 1.5 81.2 ± 4.8 300 ± 46.72 31.4 ± 5.86
Straight 9.4 ± 2.9 502 ± 52.48 27.6 ± 1.40
3 (pH 7.6) Bent 20.5 ± 4.2 14.0 ± 0.9 78.8 ± 8.5 242 ± 35.07 29.2 ± 7.43
Straight 10.1 ± 2.4 485 ± 92.66 27.2 ± 3.00
4 (Control) Bent 17.9 ± 2.2 4.4 ± 0.6 28.4 ± 6.8 345 ± 85.90 32.5 ± 3.72
Straight 8.2 ± 0.9 496 ± 18.62 28.4 ± 0.42
  1. Mean roughness (Ra-value), mean flexural Young’s modulus, and mean maximum force of bent/straight wires as well as mean roughness (Ra and Rz) of straight wires before (control group 4) and after immersion in artificial saliva at pH 5.6, 6.6, and 7.6 (experiment groups 1, 2, and 3). Data are shown as mean ± SD