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Table 2 Maxillofacial landmarks displacement (mm) after activation of quad-helix and NPE2

From: A comparison of three-dimensional stress distribution and displacement of naso-maxillary complex on application of forces using quad-helix and nickel titanium palatal expander 2 (NPE2): a FEM study

  Quad-helix NPE2
  X Y Z X Y Z
Point A 0.003427 0.006688 −0.00881 0.003319 0.006248 −0.006096
ANS 0.004253 0.003503 0.008858 0.00391 0.003613 0.006186
PNS 0.005283 0.001837 0.012598 0.005056 0.001094 0.012617
Maxillary tuberosity 0.016233 0.00031 −0.003611 0.013944 0.000208 −0.004822
Pterygoid-hamulus 0.015453 −0.00058 0.00439 0.013264 −0.000674 0.003608
Infra-orbital rim −0.002627 −0.003797 0.002055 −0.003208 −0.004709 0.000064
Frontal process of zygomatic bone 0.005746 −0.003224 −0.0038 0.00482 −0.004307 −0.005211
Maxillary process of zygomatic bone 0.007994 0.001986 −0.004287 0.006796 0.000902 −0.005581
Temporal process of zygomatic bone 0.001178 −0.003673 −0.006246 0.000459 −0.004526 −0.007885
Lateral nasal wall −0.001213 −0.005725 0.004914 −0.001668 −0.006081 0.002756
Inferior nasal floor 0.001095 −0.006938 0.010252 0.000813 −0.006873 0.007878
Lateral pterygoid plate 0.016924 −0.000257 0.001381 0.0145 −0.000456 0.000907
Medial pterygoid plate 0.022838 −0.001301 0.003343 0.020164 −0.001623 0.002856
  1. X transverse, Y sagittal, Z vertical, + indicates outward, backward and downward displacement