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Table 1 Description of cephalometric landmarks used in this study

From: Accuracy of Dolphin visual treatment objective (VTO) prediction software on class III patients treated with maxillary advancement and mandibular setback

Hard tissue points
Anterior nasal spine (ANS): Anterior tip of the bony process of the maxilla
Articulare (Ar): A point at the junction of the posterior border of the ramus and the inferior border of the posterior cranial base.
Gonion (Go): Point on the curvature of the angle of the mandible located by bisecting the angle formed by lines tangent to the posterior ramus and inferior border of the mandible
Gnathion (Gn): Midpoint between the anterior and inferior points of the bony chin
Menton (Me): The lowest point on the symphyseal shadow of the mandible
Nasion (N): Most anterior point on the frontonasal suture
Orbitale (Or): Most inferior point on the inferior rim of the orbit
Posterior nasal spine (PNS): Posterior tip of the hard palate
Pogonion (Pg): Most anterior point on the chin
Porion (Po): Most superior point on the external auditory meatus
Sella (S): Geometric center of the pituitary fossa
Subspinale (A point): Most posterior midline point in the concavity of the alveolar bone overlying the maxillary incisors
Supramentale (B point): Most posterior midline point in the concavity of the alveolar bone overlying the mandibular incisors
Pterygomaxillare (PTM): Lowest point of the pterygomaxillary fissure
Soft tissue points
Glabella (G’): The most prominent anterior point in the midsagittal plane of the forehead
Tip of the nose (Pr): The most prominent or anterior point of the nose
Subnasale (Sn’): The point at which the columella merges with the upper lip in the midsagittal plane
Soft tissue A point (A’): The point of greatest concavity in the midline of the upper lip between subnasale and labrale superius
Upper lip/labrale superius (Ls): A point indicated the mucocutaneous border of the upper lip
Stomion superius (Stms): The lower most point on the vermilion of the upper lip
Stomion inferius (Stmi): The uppermost point on the vermilion of the lower lip
Lower lip/labrale inferius (Li): The median point in the lower margin of the lower membranous lip
Soft tissue B point (B’): The point of greatest concavity in the midline of the lower lip between labrale inferius and soft tissue pogonion
Soft tissue pogonion (Pg’): The most prominent point on the chin
Soft tissue menton (Me’): Lowest point on the contour of the soft tissue chin
Soft tissue gnathion (Gn’): Midpoint between the anterior and inferior points of the soft tissue chin