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Table 2 Periodontal outcomes

From: The effects of fixed and removable orthodontic retainers: a systematic review

  Intervention Periodontal outcomes Index Arch Teeth Tooth surfaces
Al-Nimri et al. 2009 [25] - 0.036″ round stainless steel fixed retainer (canines only)
- 0.015″ multistrand fixed retainer
Plaque Index 0 absence
1 on probe
2 visible
3 abundant
Mandible 3-3 Labial/lingual/mesial/distal
Gingival Index 0 absence
1 mild
2 moderate
3 severe
Mandible 3-3 Labial and lingual
Calculus Part of Oral Hygiene Index
Tooth with the highest score determine the index score for the segment (6 segments)
Maxilla and mandible All teeth except mandibular labial segment Labial and lingual
Bazargani et al. 2012 [14] - 0.0195″ multistrand fixed retainer with two-step bonded resin adhesive
- 0.0195″ multistrand fixed retainer with non-resin adhesive
Calculus Present/absent Mandible 3-3 Lingual
Torkan et al. 2014 [16] - Fiber-reinforced resin composite fixed retainer
- 0.0175″ multistrand stainless steel fixed retainer
Plaque Index Using disclosing
0 absence
1 visible on the probe
2 visible
3 abundant
Maxilla and mandible 3-3 Lingual
Calculus Index 0 absence
1 up to 1/3
2 up to 2/3
3 > 2/3
Maxilla and mandible All teeth Unclear
Gingival Index 0 absence
1 mild
2 moderate
3 severe
Maxilla and mandible Unclear Lingual
Bleeding on probing Present/absent Maxilla and mandible 3-3 Unclear
Tacken et al. 2010 [31] - Glass fiber-reinforced fixed retainer (500 unidirectional glass fibers)
- Glass fiber-reinforced fixed retainer (1000 unidirectional glass fibers)
- 0.0215″ coaxial fixed retainer
- Untreated control
Gingival Index 0 absence
1 mild (localized)
2 mild (generalized)
3 moderate
4 severe
Unclear Unclear Unclear, 3 sites/tooth: mesial, distal, central
Bleeding on probing 0 no bleeding
1 point bleeding
2 abundant bleeding
Unclear Unclear Unclear, 3 sites/tooth: mesial, distal, central
Plaque Index Using disclosing
0 no plaque
1 spots at the cervical margin
2 thin band at the cervical margin
3 gingival 1/3
4 gingival 2/3
5 > gingival 2/3
Unclear Unclear Unclear, 3 sites/tooth: mesial, distal, central
Artun et al. 1997 [28]  - 0.032″ plain fixed retainer (canines only)
- 0.032″ spiral wire fixed retainer (canines only)
- 0.0205″ spiral wire fixed retainer
- Removable retainer
Plaque Index 0 absence
1 on probe
2 visible
3 abundant
Mandible 3-3 Lingual, mesial, distal
Gingival Index 0 absence
1 mild
2 moderate
3 severe
Mandible 3-3 Lingual, mesial, distal
Calculus Index 0 absence
1 supragingival calculus not more than 1 mm
2 gingival 1/3
3 > gingival 2/3
Mandible 3-3 Lingual, mesial, distal
Pocket depth Mean attachment loss Mandible 3-3 Lingual
Liu et al. 2010 [23] - 0.75-mm fiber-reinforced composite fixed retainer
- 0.9-mm multistrand stainless steel fixed retainer
Pocket depth Scores added together Mandible 3-3 Lingual (3 sites/tooth)
Bleeding on probing Scores added together Mandible 3-3 Lingual (3 sites/tooth)
Heier et al. 2010 [30] - 0.0175″ multistrand stainless steel fixed retainer
- Hawley retainer
Gingival Index 0 absence
1 mild (localized)
2 mild (generalized)
3 moderate
4 severe
Maxilla and mandible 3-3 Labial, lingual, interdental labial, interdental lingual
Bleeding on probing 0 absence
1 point bleeding
2 profuse
Maxilla and mandible 3-3 Labial, lingual, interdental labial, interdental lingual
Plaque Index Using disclosing
0 no plaque
1 spots at the cervical margin
2 thin band at the cervical margin
3 gingival 1/3
4 gingival 2/3
5 > gingival 2/3
Maxilla and mandible 3-3 Labial, lingual
Calculus Index Overall mean score Maxilla and mandible 3-3 Labial, lingual (3 sites/surface)