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Table 4 Survival and failure rates of fixed and removable retainers

From: The effects of fixed and removable orthodontic retainers: a systematic review

Study Intervention Survival rate Failure rate
Al-Nimri et al. 2009 [25] - 0.036″ round stainless steel fixed retainer (canines only)   4/31 (13 %)
- 0.015″ multistrand fixed retainer   9/31 (29 %)
Bazargani et al. 2012 [14] - 0.0195″ multistrand fixed retainer with two-step bonded resin adhesive   1/25 (4 %)
- 0.0195″ multistrand fixed retainer with non-resin adhesive   7/26 (27 %)
Tynelius et al. 2014 [13] - Vacuum-formed retainer in the maxilla and 0.7-mm spring hard wire fixed retainer in the mandible (canines only)   2/24 (8.3 %) vacuum-formed retainer, 15/24 (62.5 %) fixed retainer
- Vacuum-formed retainer in the maxilla and interproximal enamel reduction in the mandibular anterior teeth   3/25 (12 %)
- Prefabricated positioner   0/25 (0 %)
Sfondrini et al. 2014 [17] - 0.5-mm silanized-treated glass fiber-reinforced composite resin fixed retainer   27/240 bonded teeth (11.25 %)
- 0.0175″ multistrand stainless steel fixed retainer   50/282 bonded teeth (17.73 %)
Ardeshna et al. 2011 [26] - 0.53- or 1.02-mm fiber-reinforced thermoplastic fixed retainer with polyethylene terephthalate glycol matrix resin Median, 2.97 months 22/23 (95.6 %)
- 0.53- or 1.02-mm fiber-reinforced thermoplastic fixed retainer with polycarbonate matrix resin Median, 11.37 months 32/53 (60.3 %)
Salehi et al. 2013 [18] - Polyethylene woven ribbon fixed retainer Maxilla: mean 13.96 ± 4.53 months Mandible: mean 14.26 ± 4.70 months 34/68 in the maxilla (50 %), 29/68 in the mandible (42.6 %)
- 0.0175″ multistrand stainless steel fixed retainer Maxilla: mean 15.34 ± 4.04 months Mandible: mean 15.61 ± 3.61 months 27/74 in the maxilla (36.5 %), 28/74 in the mandible (37.8 %)
Hichens et al. 2007 [12] - Hawley retainer   40/344 (11.6 %)
- Vacuum-formed retainer   20/366 (17 %)
Bovali et al. 2014 [19] - Direct bonding of 0.0215″ multistrand stainless steel fixed retainer   7/29 (24.1 %)
- Indirect bonding of 0.0215″ multistrand stainless steel fixed retainer   10/31 (32.2 %)
Pandis et al. 2013 [20] - 0.022″ multistrand stainless steel fixed retainer bonded with chemical-cured composite   47/110 (42.7 %)
- 0.022″ multistrand stainless steel fixed retainer bonded with light-cured composite   55/110 (50 %)
Liu et al. 2010 [23] - 0.75-mm fiber-reinforced composite fixed retainer   0/30 (0 %)
- 0.9-mm multistrand stainless steel fixed retainer   0/30 (0 %)
Taner et al. 2012 [27] - Direct bonding 0.016″ × 0.022″ multistrand stainless steel dead soft wire fixed retainer   15/32 (46.8 %)
- Indirect bonding 0.016″ × 0.022″ multistrand stainless steel dead soft wire fixed retainer   10/34 (29.4 %)
Artun et al. 1997 [28] - 0.032″ plain fixed retainer (canines only)   1/11 (9.1 %)
- 0.032″ spiral fixed retainer (canines only)   4/13 (30.7 %)
- 0.0205″ spiral wire fixed retainer   3/11 (27.27 %)
- Removable retainer   2/14 (14.28 %)
Scribante et al. 2011 [24] - 0.0175″ multistrand stainless steel fixed retainer   23/102 bonded teeth (23 %)
- Polyethylene fiber-reinforced resin composite fixed retainer   13/90 bonded teeth (14 %)
O’Rouke et al. 2016 [22] - Vacuum-formed retainer   
- 0.0175″ stainless steel coaxial fixed retainer   3/42 (7.14 %)