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Table 5 Patient-reported outcomes and cost-effectiveness

From: The effects of fixed and removable orthodontic retainers: a systematic review

Study Intervention Patient-reported outcomes Cost-effectiveness
Tynelius et al. 2014 [13] - Vacuum-formed retainer in the maxilla and 0.7-mm spring hard wire fixed retainer in the mandible (canines only)   Costs of scheduled appointments, €12,425 Costs of unscheduled appointments, €804
- Vacuum-formed retainer in the maxilla and interproximal enamel reduction in the mandibular anterior teeth   Costs of scheduled appointments, €11,275 Costs of unscheduled appointments, €303
- Prefabricated positioner   Costs of scheduled appointments, €10,500 Costs of unscheduled appointments, none
Hichens et al. 2007 [12] - Hawley retainer Embarrassment: 29/168 (17 %) Discomfort: 109/168 (65 %) Mean cost to the NHS, €152 (€150.86, €153.15) per patient Mean cost to the orthodontic practice, −€1.00 (−€1.78, −€0.22) per patient Mean cost to the patient, €11.63 (€9.67, €13.59) per patient
- Vacuum-formed retainer Embarrassment: 13/182 (7 %) Discomfort: 112/182 (62 %) Mean cost to the NHS, €122.02 (€120.84, €123.21) per patient Mean cost to the orthodontic practice, −€34.00 (−€34.57, −€33.34) per patient Mean cost to the patient, €6.92 (€5.29, €8.53) per patient
Scribante et al. 2011 [24] - 0.0175″ multistrand stainless steel fixed retainer Mean, 8.24 ± 1.39; median, 8.50; range, (4.50–10.0) (using visual analog scale)  
- Polyethylene fiber-reinforced resin composite fixed retainer Mean, 9.73 ± 0.42; median, 10.00; range, (9.00–10.0) (using visual analog scale)