Skip to main content


Fig. 2 | Progress in Orthodontics

Fig. 2

From: A retrospective cephalometric study on pharyngeal airway space changes after rapid palatal expansion and Herbst appliance with or without skeletal anchorage

Fig. 2

Airways cephalometric analysis. Reference points and lines: sella (S), basion (BA), porion (PO), posterior nasal spine (PNS), Frankfurt plane (PFH), pterygoid vertical line (PtV), palatal plane (PL), the fourth cervical vertebra (C4), AD1, AD2, and AD-PtV (upper airway space measurements), oropharyngeal airway space (OA), laryngopharyngeal airway space (LA)

Back to article page