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Table 1 Cephalometric parameters and their descriptions

From: A retrospective cephalometric study on pharyngeal airway space changes after rapid palatal expansion and Herbst appliance with or without skeletal anchorage

Maxillary angle SNA

Angle formed by the lines SN and NA (degrees)

Mandibular angle SNB

Angle formed by the lines SN and NB (degrees)

Skeletal class ANB

Angle formed by the lines AN and NB (degrees)

Skeletal divergence SN/GoMe

Angle formed by the lines SN and GoMe (degrees)

Maxillary bone base A/Olp

Distance from the Olp line to point A (mm)

Mandibular bone base Pg/Olp

Distance from the Olp line to the point Pg (mm)

Airway space AD1

Linear distance between the posterior nasal spine and the closest point of adenoidal tissue along the line Ba-PNS (mm)

Airway space AD2

Linear distance between the PNS and the nearest point of adenoid tissue along the line passing through PNS and perpendicular to the line joining S and Ba (mm)

Airway space AD-PtV

Linear distance between the closest point of adenoid tissue and a point on the pterygoid vertical 5 mm above the intersection point between PTV and Ba-PNS (mm)

Oropharyngeal airway space OA

Linear distance of the oropharyngeal space along the palatal plane (PL; plane passing through anterior and posterior nasal spine) passing through the gonion (mm)

Laryngopharyngeal airway space LA

Linear distance of the laryngopharyngeal space along the C4 plane (mm)