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Table 4 Summary of effects

From: Systematic review for orthodontic and orthopedic treatments for anterior open bite in the mixed dentition

Treatment modalities Summary of effects Reduction of open bite Reduction of divergency
Rapid molar intruder (RMI) Molar intrusion Yes Yes
Mandibular autorotation
Bite blocks Magnetic bite block (MBB) Incisors extrusion, molar intrusion Yes Yes
Control of mandibular skeletal height
Mandibular autorotation
Lateral crossbite
More effective than spring loaded bite blocks
Faster and more effective than acrylic bite blocks
Spring-loaded bite block (SLBB) Incisors extrusion, maxillary molar intrusion Yes Yes
Control of posterior dentoalveolar height
Mandibular autorotation
Tendency to break
Greater ramal inclination and molar intrusion than acrylic bite blocks
Posterior bite blocks 5 mm (PBB5); posterior bite blocks 10 mm (PBB10) Incisive extrusion and lingual tipping, molar intrusion Yes Yes
Control of posterior dentoalveolar height
Mandibular autorotation
PBB5 and PBB10 are both effective
PBB10 produce greater mandibular sagittal growth and autorotation, increase of gonial angle
Quad-helix/crib (Q-H/C) Stop sucking habits Yes Yes
Incisors extrusion and lingual tipping
More efficient than removable cribs since it does not need for compliance
Downward rotation of palatal plane and improvement of intermaxillary vertical relationships
Cribs or spurs Fixed palatal crib (FPC) More efficient than removable cribs since it does not need for compliance Yes Data in disagreement
Removable palatal crib (RPC) Just anterior dento-alveolar effects (extrusion and verticalization of maxillary and mandibular incisors) Yes Data in disagreement
Molar eruption not controlled
Skeletal effects depend on patient’s compliance
Spurs (BS) Dentoalveolar effects Yes Yes
Vertical chin cup (VCC) Reduction of open bite Yes Data in disagreement
Molar eruption not controlled
Skeletal effects depend on patient’s compliance
Functional appliances Open bite bionator (OBB) Useful for class II open bite malocclusions Yes Yes
Control of maxillary molars extrusion
Improvement of intermaxillary vertical relationships
Fränkel appliance + lip seal exercises (FR + LSE) Dentoalveolar effects, upper incisors lingual tipping Yes Data in disagreement
Stability if lips sealed without muscular straint
Data about skeletal effects are in disagreement
Teuscher appliance (A-HPH) Effective for class II open bite malocclusions Yes Yes
Lingual tipping of maxillary incisors
Reduction of forward growth of the maxilla
Control of maxillary molars extrusion and mesialization
Increase of mandibular alveolar height