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Table 1 Abbreviations for anatomical landmarks and reference planes used in the analysis of lateral cephalograms

From: Craniofacial features as assessed by lateral cephalometric measurements in children with Down syndrome

Landmark Description Landmark Description
S Sella turcica C2 Inferior, anterior point of cervical vertebra 2
N Nasion C3 Inferior, anterior point of cervical vertebra 3
A Subspinale C4 Inferior, anterior point of cervical vertebra 4
B Supramentale C5 Inferior, anterior point of cervical vertebra 5
ANS Anterior nasal spine ST N Soft tissue nasion
PNS Posterior nasal spine ST A Soft tissue A point
Ba Basion ST B Soft tissue B point
Or Orbitale ST Pg Soft tissue pogonion
Gn Gnathion (anatomical) ST G Soft tissue gnathion
Go Gonion ST M Soft tissue menton
Me Menton ULP Upper lip point
Po Porion LLP Lower lip point
Pg Pogonion MR Mid ramus
Gl Glabella (soft tissue) Sig Sigmoid notch
Ar Articulare PT Pterygopalatine point
Rg Retrognathion Bno Bridge of nose
H Anterior, superior point of the hyoid Tno Tip of nose
Co Condylion Sub Subnasale
U6O Maxillary 1st permanent molar occlusal OP Occlusal plane
U6D Maxillary 1st permanent molar distal SPS Soft palate superior point
U6M Maxillary 1st permanent molar mesial SPI Soft palate inferior point
L6O Mandibular 1st permanent molar occlusal AA A Anterior pharynx at A
L6D Mandibular 1st permanent molar distal PA A Posterior pharynx at A
L6M Mandibular 1st permanent molar mesial AA Mx1 Anterior pharynx at Mx1
L1T Lower central incisor incisal tip PA Mx1 Posterior pharynx at Mx1
L1R Lower central incisor root tip AA B Anterior pharynx at B
L1L Lower central incisor lingual gingival border PA B Posterior pharynx space at B
L1G Lower central incisor labial gingival border AA P Anterior pharynx at Pg
U1T Upper central incisor incisal tip PA B Posterior pharynx at Pg
U1R Upper central incisor root tip THR Throat point
U1L Upper central incisor lingual gingival border TVL McNamara true vertical line
U1G Upper central incisor labial gingival FH Frankfort horizontal line