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Table 2 Measurements and definitions used in the cephalometric analysis

From: Craniofacial features as assessed by lateral cephalometric measurements in children with Down syndrome

Measurement (unit) Description
Maxilla/midface
 SNA (°) Sagittal position of maxilla
 ANS-PNS (mm) Maxillary length
 Co-ANS (mm) Length condylion to ANS
 N/S^ANS/PNS (°) Palatal plane angle
 Ba-S-N (°) Saddle angle
 S-N (mm) Anterior cranial base length
 S-Ba (mm) Posterior cranial base length
 Ba-A (mm) Length basion to A point
 Ba-N-A (°) angle formed from basion to nasion to A point
 FH^N/A (°) Maxillary depth angle
 PNS-Ba (mm) PNS to basion
 A-N true vertical (mm) Length of A to N, sagittal position of the maxilla
 OP^FH (°) Angle formed by occlusal plane to FH
 OP^SN (°) Angle formed by occlusal plane and sella-nasion
Mandible
 SNB (°) Sagittal position of mandible
 Ba-B (mm) Length basion to B point
 Ba-N-B (°) Angle formed from basion-nasion-B point
 FH-N-Po (°) Mandibular depth angle
 Co-Go-Gn (°) Gonial angle
 Co-Go (mm) Mandibular length
 S-Go (mm) Length from condylion to pogonion
 Co-Pg (mm) Length from sella to gonion
 S/N^Go/Gn (°) Angle form by the gonion/gnathion and nasion/sella
 B-N true vertical (mm) B to N True vertical
 Pg-N true vertical (mm) Pogonion to N True vertical
 Y-axis length (mm) Length Sella to Gnathion
 Y-axis angle (°) Angle formed from ST G and sella-nasion
Inter-maxillary relationship
 ANB (°) A-N-B angle
 Wits appraisal (mm) Length along the occlusal plane from perpendicular points to A and B
 Co-Pog-Co-ANS (mm) Harvold analysis
Facial height
 TFH (N-Me) (mm) Total facial height; distance from nasion to menton
 UFH (N-ANS) (mm) Upper facial height; distance from nasion to ANS
 LFH (ANS-Me) (mm) Lower face height; distance from ANS to menton
 LFH/TFH (%) Lower face height to total face height ratio
 PFH (S-Go) (mm) Posterior facial height; distance from S-Go
 AFH (N-Pg) (mm) Anterior facial height, distance from N to Pg
 PFH/AFH (%) Ratio of the posterior facial height and anterior facial height
Hyoid
 MP-H (mm) Length of hyoid from line perpendicular to the mandibular plan (Go-Me)
 H-Rg (mm) Length of hyoid to retrognathion
 H-C3 (mm) Length of hyoid to C3
 H-C3-Rg (mm) Length of hyoid from line perpendicular to C3 to retrognathion
 H-Me-Go/Me (°) Angle formed from hyoid, menton, and gonion
 H-S (mm) Distance from hyoid to sella
 C2 - H FH perp (mm) Length of C2-hyoid to the horizontal aspect to FH
 C2 - H || FH (mm) Length of C2-hyoid in the vertical aspect to FH
 C3 - H FH perp (mm) Length of C3-hyoid to the horizontal aspect to FH
 C3 - H || FH (mm) Length of C3-hyoid in the vertical aspect to FH
 C4 - H FH perp (mm) Length of C4-hyoid to the horizontal aspect to FH
 C4 - H || FH (mm) Length of C4-hyoid in the vertical aspect to FH
Airway
 Airway at A point (mm) Pharyngeal airway length at A point
 Airway at Mx1 level (mm) Pharyngeal airway length along the occlusal plane
 Airway at B point (mm) Pharyngeal airway length at B point
 Airway at Pog level (mm) Pharyngeal airway length at the level of the pogonion
Palate
 ANS/PNS^Me/Go (°) Angle of palate to mandibular plane
 SPS-SPI (mm) Thickness of soft palate
Dental/soft tissue profile
 Mx1-Mx OP (°) Upper incisor inclination
 Mx1-Sn (mm) Upper incisor tip projection
 Md1-Md OP (°) lower incisor inclination
 Md1-Sn (mm) lower incisor tip projection
 Overjet (mm) Overjet (measurement of U1T to L1T in the horizontal direction)
 Overbite (mm) Overbite (measurement of U1T to L1T in the vertical direction)
 Maxillary anterior height (mm) Subnasale, U1 tip perpendicular to TVL
 Sub-Gl (mm) Subnasale to soft glabella to TVL
 STA-TVL (A') (mm) Soft tissue point A length to TVL
 STB-TVL (B') (mm) Soft Tissue point B length to TVL
 STP-TVL (mm) Soft tissue pogonion length to TVL
 STP-THR (mm) Soft tissue pogonion to throat point