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Table 2 General characteristics and outcome of animal studies conducted on the effect of DM on periodontal tissues during orthodontic movement

From: Influence of uncontrolled diabetes mellitus on periodontal tissues during orthodontic tooth movement: a systematic review of animal studies

Study Animal model (n) Study groups (n) Duration of study Orthodontic appliance; force magnitude and duration Outcomes Reference
Li et al. 2010 48 Sprague–Dawley rats Group 1: DM + OTM (24) Group 2: healthy + OTM (24) 14 days 0.5 N closed-coil between the incisors and molar applied for 14 days DM induced higher alveolar bone resorption during OTM [17]
Braga et al. 2011 60 rats Group 1: DM + OTM (25) Group 2: healthy + OTM (25) Group 3: DM + OTM + insulin (10) 12 days 35 g Ni–Ti coil spring between the incisors and molar for 12 days DM induced higher alveolar bone resorption leading to increased OTM [16]
Villarino et al. 2011 24 Wistar rats Group 1: DM +OTM (8) Group 2: healthy + OTM (8) Group 3: DM + OTM + insulin (8) 44 days 120 ± 15 g closed-coil spring between the upper molars for 1 week DM decreased bone remodeling during OTM. Insulin prevented effects of DM on the alveolar bone [20]
Zhang et al. 2011 48 Sprague–Dawley rats Group 1: DM + OTM (24) Group 2: healthy + DM (24) 10 weeks 50 g coil spring between the maxillary incisor and molars for 14 days DM induced higher alveolar bone resorption during OTM [21]
Plut et al. 2015 24 Wistar rats (healthy) and 24 Goto-Kakizak rats (DM) Group 1: healthy Wistar + OTM (8) Group 2: Goto-Kakizak + OTM (8) Group 3: healthy Wistar + OTM (8) Group 4: Goto-Kakizak + OTM 42 days 0.25 N coil spring between the left maxillary and second and first molars for entire duration of study DM reduced bone remodeling during OTM [22]
Arita et al. 2016 23 Spra- gue-Dawley rats Group 1: healthy + OTM (7) Group 2: diabetic + OTM (9) Group 3: diabetic + OTM + insulin (7) 28 days 10 g closed-coil spring between palatal miniscrew and the maxillary molar for 2 weeks DM reduced rate of OTM and decreased bone resorption. Insulin reduced adverse effects of DM on OTM [15]
  1. DM diabetes mellitus, LLLT low-level laser therapy, OTM orthodontic tooth movement, TIMP tissue inhibitor of metalloproteinase