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Table 2 Results for primary and secondary outcomes

From: Clinical evaluation of marketed orthodontic products: are researchers behind the times? A meta-epidemiological study

Category N %
Type of product
 Marketed products 38 45
 Non-marketed products 46 55
Intervention
 Orthodontic bracket 8 9.5
 Orthodontic archwire 2 2.4
 Removable appliance 5 5.9
 Non-surgical adjunctive 12 14.1
 Surgical adjunctive 4 4.8
 Retention 5 5.9
 Oral health 13 15.8
 Orthodontic auxiliaries 11 13.1
 Interceptive treatment 5 5.9
 Materials 8 9.5
 Growth modification 7 8.3
 Medication 4 4.8
Justification of intervention
 Accelerate treatment 7 8.3
 Aesthetics 2 2.4
 Reduce iatrogenic effects 17 20.2
 Retain tooth position 5 5.9
 Reduce pain 14 16.7
 Improve knowledge 1 1.2
 Oral health 3 3.6
 Dental development 5 5.9
 Treatment efficiency 28 33.3
 Compliance 2 2.4
Direction of effect
 Positive 46 54.8
 Negative 1 1.2
 No difference 37 44.0
Industry sponsorship
 Industry funded and declared 8 9.5
 No industry sponsorship to declare 48 57.2
 Not clearly declared 28 33.3
Conflict of interest
 Conflicts exist and declared 3 3.6
 No conflicts to declare 42 50
 Not clearly declared 39 46.4