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Table 1 Computational result of the transversal (X), sagittal (Y), and vertical (Z) displacements of the various skeletal structures of the craniofacial complex following 5 mm of transverse expansion on application of 19 kg/mm2 force

From: Stress and displacement patterns in the craniofacial skeleton with rapid maxillary expansion—a finite element method study

Region Selected node X (mm) Y (mm) Z (mm)
Dentoalveolar Incisal edge of 1 (47,005) 5.073 0.79 0.42
Cusp tip 3 (44,665) 5.068 0.65 0.28
Cusp tip 6 (35,146) 5.068 0.69 0.28
Apical region of 1 (106,126) 4.281 0.93 −0.62
Apical region of 3 (99,505) 3.878 0.43 0.28
Apical region of 6 (112,557) 4.273 0.37 0.32
Palate Anterior part of palate (17,631) 3.077 1.21 −0.81
Posterior part (17,161) 2.09 1.12 −0.98
Maxilla Point “A” (32,324) 3.55 0.86 −0.92
ANS (16,022) 3.078 1.24 −0.72
Tuberosity (12,721) 3.26 0.55 0.32
Zygomatic buttress (11,611) 2.89 0.019 0.85
Inferior orbital rim (10,586) 1.97 −0.21 0.90
Frontal process (14,235) 1.00 0.078 −0.22
Nasal cavity wall Antero-inferior (17,902) 2.95 0.43 0.02
Anterosuperior (14,894) 1.41 0.21 −0.02
Posteroinferior (14,131) 1.93 0.42 −0.35
Posterosuperior (17,005) 0.49 0.009 −0.04
Nasal bone Body (16,523) 0.31 −0.63 −0.71
Sphenoid bone Lateral pterygoid inferior (24,419) 1.91 0.63 −0.52
Lateral pterygoid superior (24,118) 0.651 0.06 0.18
Medial pterygoid inferior (20,674) 1.88 −0.53 −0.39
Medial pterygoid superior (24,011) 0.146 −0.09 0.23
Greater wing (29,115) 0.33 −0.41 0.67
Zygomatic bone Body (5320) 0.25 −0.83 1.64
Frontal process (22,309) 2.19 −1.2 1.62
Zygomatic arch anterior (3971) 0.55 −0.86 1.72
Zygomatic arch posterior (3907) 0.045 −0.42 0.08
Frontal bone Supraorbital (7846) 0.015 −0.02 0.12
Forehead (18,937) 0.02 −0.03 0.065
Temporal bone Squamous (3786) 0.55 −0.28 0.36
Parietal Tuberosity (31,299) 0.09 −0.27 0.41
Occipital Squamous (20,670) 0.014 −0.09 0.03