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Table 6 Mean (in cN) and standard deviation (SD) of 0.016-in. thermally activated NiTi wires, in the bracket systems (n = 10)

From: Force level of small diameter nickel-titanium orthodontic wires ligated with different methods

Elastic deflection Damon Bioquick EL ML p
Mean (S.D.) Mean (S.D.) Mean (S.D.) Mean (S.D.)
0.5 mm 32.66 (3.10) B 27.47 (5.32) B 4.28 (3.56) A 29.04 (16.92) B 0.000*
1 mm 94.34 (6.65) A 81.00 (6.67) A 126.50 (41.57) B 140.05 (25.26) B 0.000*
2 mm 212.53 (8.01) B 180.62 (4.84) A 211.61 (6.19) B 219.73 (10.89) B 0.000*
3 mm 295.28 (12.84) B 270.62 (4.88) A 374.67 (15.06) D 322.26 (13.23) C 0.000*
  1. *Statistically significant at p < 0.05