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Table 4 Comparison of pressure measurements according to the treatment stages between the study and control groups

From: Changes in lips, cheeks and tongue pressures after upper incisor protrusion in Class II division 2 malocclusion: a prospective study

  T0 T1 T2
Study group Mean ± SD Control group Mean ± SD p Study group Mean ± SD Control group Mean ± SD p Study group Mean ± SD Control group Mean ± SD p
Upper lip pressure (kPa) 22.13 ± 3.23 22.17 ± 2.70 0.960 21.68 ± 2.32 23.17 ± 2.13 0.060 24.65 ± 2.90 25.69 ± 3.96 0.377
Lower lip pressure (kPa) 23.15 ± 4.24 23.15 ± 4.61 0.956 26.90 ± 5.95 24.20 ± 4.93 0.163 22.95 ± 4.01 25.73 ± 5.80 0.103
Vertical lip pressure (kPa) 9.38 ± 2.38 8.97 ± 1.92 0.593 7.81 ± 2.52 9.81 ± 1.75 0.013* 9.63 ± 2.79 11.11 ± 2.30 0.105
Left buccal pressure (kPa) 21.93 ± 3.35 18.93 ± 3.21 0.012* 19.00 ± 2.69 20.22 ± 2.88 0.205 20.86 ± 4.07 21.15 ± 3.07 0.820
Right buccal pressure (kPa) 20.90 ± 3.18 20.00 ± 3.26 0.419 19.71 ± 3.34 20.73 ± 3.10 0.364 20.28 ± 4.37 19.66 ± 2.99 0.643
Swallowing tongue pressure (kPa) 23.00 ± 6.71 26.11 ± 12.09 0.339 24.93 ± 7.82 24.75 ± 8.11 0.948 23.00 ± 8.70 22.38 ± 5.06 0.807
Maximum tongue pressure (kPa) 46.48 ± 7.00 49.55 ± 8.75 0.257 44.46 ± 8.49 50.11 ± 8.05 0.055 46.18 ± 9.24 49.44 ± 7.26 0.267
  1. *p < 0.05