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Table 5 Statistical analysis of the pressure changes in different treatment stages between the study and control groups

From: Changes in lips, cheeks and tongue pressures after upper incisor protrusion in Class II division 2 malocclusion: a prospective study

  T1-T0 T2-T1 T2-T0
Mean difference ± SD p Mean difference ± SD p Mean difference ± SD p
Upper lip pressure (kPa) Study group −0.45 ± 0.57 1.000 2.97 ± 0.75 0.001** 2.52 ± 0.83 0.014*
Control group 1.00 ± 0.66 0.418 2.51 ± 0.87 0.020* 3.51 ± 0.96 0.003**
Lower lip pressure (kPa) Study group 3.75 ± 1.03 0.003** −3.95 ± 0.79 0.000*** −0.20 ± 0.98 1.000
Control group 1.13 ± 1.19 1.000 1.54 ± 0.91 0.308 2.67 ± 1.13 0.072
Vertical lip pressure (kPa) Study group −1.57 ± 0.39 0.001** 1.82 ± 0.49 0.002** 0.25 ± 0.47 1.000
Control group 0.85 ± 0.46 0.216 1.29 ± 0.56 0.084 2.13 ± 0.54 0.001**
Left buccal pressure (kPa) Study group −2.93 ± 0.71 0.001** 1.87 ± 0.81 0.084 −1.07 ± 0.79 0.565
Control group 1.29 ± 0.82 0.375 0.93 ± 0.94 0.980 2.22 ± 0.92 0.062
Right buccal pressure (kPa) Study group −1.18 ± 0.63 0.203 0.57 ± 0.80 1.000 −0.62 ± 0.88 1.000
Control group 0.73 ± 0.72 0.953 −1.07 ± 0.92 0.760 −0.33 ± 1.01 1.000
Swallowing tongue pressure (kPa) Study group 1.93 ± 1.49 0.609 −1.93 ± 1.72 0.807 0.00 ± 1.82 1.000
Control group −1.36 ± 1.72 1.000 −2.38 ± 1.99 0.720 −3.73 ± 2.10 0.255
Maximum tongue pressure (kPa) Study group −2.02 ± 1.64 0.678 1.72 ± 1.39 0.678 −0.30 ± 1.73 1.000
Control group 0.56 ± 1.89 1.000 −0.67 ± 1.61 1.000 −0.11 ± 2.00 1.000
  1. *p < 0.05, **p < 0.01, ***p < 0.001