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Table 2 Mean values and standard deviations (SD) of the vertical force component (Fz) for modified aligners (z11 = cut on tooth 11; z12–21 = cut from tooth 12 till 21) and uncut (none) aligners during palatal and vestibular tipping (± 0.151 mm deflection distance) for all three materials used

From: Removable thermoplastic appliances modified by incisal cuts show altered biomechanical properties during tipping of a maxillary central incisor

Tipping range Material thickness Material Cut N Mean (N) SD (N)
−0.151 mm palatal 1 mm Biolon® None 5 −0.16 0.13
  Erkodur® None 5 0.03 0.19
  IdealClear® None 5 −0.02 0.22
   Biolon® z11 5 0.19 0.59
   Erkodur® z11 5 0.11 0.17
   IdealClear® z11 5 0.10 0.35
   Biolon® z12–21 5 0.51 0.16
   Erkodur® z12–21 5 0.32 0.25
   IdealClear® z12–21 5 0.26 0.33
+0.151 mm vestibular 1 mm Biolon® None 5 −2.55 0.46
  Erkodur® None 5 −1.13 0.25
  IdealClear® None 5 −1.00 0.29
   Biolon® z11 5 −0.69 0.31
   Erkodur® z11 5 −0.65 0.17
   IdealClear® z11 5 −0.58 0.20
   Biolon® z12–21 5 −0.35 0.18
   Erkodur® z12–21 5 −0.48 0.19
   IdealClear® z12–21 5 −0.37 0.33
  1. The sign of Fz values reflects the effective force direction. A negative sign indicates an intrusive Fz, whereas positive values indicate an extrusive Fz