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Table 1 Studies on Biomarkers in PMICF

From: A review of biomarkers in peri-miniscrew implant crevicular fluid (PMICF)

S.No Reference Biomarkers Method of collection Analysis method No. of patients Duration of study (days) Time at which significant variation was achieved Concentration* Percentage difference (%)
         Before loading implant After loading implant Control  
1 Monga et al. [5] Interleukin-1β (IL-1β) Micro capillary pipettes ELISA 11 300 After 24 h of loading 0.13 pg/μL 0.27 pg/μL -  
2 Sari et al. [17] Interleukin-1β (IL-1β) Paper strips ELISA 10 21 After 24 h of loading - 22.0 ± 2.5 pg/μL 19.6 ± 2.6 pg/μL 12.24
3 Hamamci et al. [27] Interleukin 2 (IL-2) Paper strips ELISA 16 90 After 24 h of loading (Unchanged) 65.20 ± 20.73 pg/μL 74.19 ± 30.36 pg/μL 70.01 ± 31.24 pg/μL -6.87, 5.97
4 Hamamci et al. [27] Interleukin 6 (IL-6) Paper strips ELISA 16 90 After 24 h of loading (Unchanged) 3.01 ± 0.82 pg/μL 3.36 ± 0.97 pg/μL 2.92 ± 1.15 pg/μL 3.08, 15.06
5 Hamamci et al. [27] Interleukin 8 (IL-8) Paper strips ELISA 16 90 After 24 h of loading 77.84 ± 12.59 pg/μL 83.52 ± 14.34 pg/μL 78.56 ± 17.10 pg/μL -0.91, 6.31
6 Kaya et al. [28] Tumor necrosis factor alpha (TNF-α) Paper strips ELISA 16 90 After 24 h of loading 31.38 ± 5.99 pg/μL 32.00 ± 4.50 pg/μL 31.91 ± 7.26 pg/μL -1.66, 0.28
7 Enhos et al. [34] Receptor activator of nuclear factor kappa-B ligand (RANKL) Paper strips ELISA 20 30 After 24 h of loading 3935.42 pg/μL 4631.25 pg/μL -  
8 Enhos et al. [34] Osteoprotegerin (OPG) Paper strips ELISA 20 30 After 24 h of loading 81.06 pg/μL 72.74 pg/μL -  
9 Intachai et al. [40] Chondroitin sulphate (CS) Paper strips ELISA 10 35 After 28 days of loading 758.03 pg/μL 1025.11 pg/μL -  
  1. * The concentration of biomarkers were converted into pg/µL for uniformity