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Table 1 Characteristics of the included studies

From: Effectiveness of en masse versus two-step retraction: a systematic review and meta-analysis

Study info. Study design G Sample no. Age Gender Malocclusion Archwire/bracket Anchorage and Aux Force system/amount Measurement T
Al-Sibaie and Hajeer 2013 [18] RCT G1 28 23.02 19F/9M Class II div. 1/OJ > 5 Crowding <3.5 0.019 × 0.025″ SS/0.022″ MBT Miniscrews Elastic-chain 150 g T1 before ttt/T2 after leveling/T3 class I canine
G2 28 20.46 16F/12M 0.019 × 0.025″ SS/0.022″ MBT TPAs Elastic-chain
Davoody et al. 2012 [20] RCT G1 23 17.4 SD 8.8 6F/7M Angle class I or II 0.016 × 0.022″ SS/0.022″ slot SL Miniscrews NiTi coil 150 g T1 before retraction
G2 23 17.9 SD 8.9 10F/5M 0.016 × 0.022″ SS/0.022″ slot SL Differential moment NiTi coil 150 g (canine) then 0.017 × 0.025 SS loop (incisors) and 0.017 × 0.025 NiTi intrusion arch T2 after retraction
Huang et al. 2010 [24] Prospective G1 26 15.4 SD 1.9 18F/8M Class I or II 0.018 × 0.025″ SS/0.022″ slot   NiTi coil 150 g T1 before space closure
G2 26 15.8 SD 1.8 18F/8M 0.018 × 0.025″ SS/0.022″ slot   NiTi coil 150 g (canine) then (incisors) T2 after space closure
Kuroda et al. 2009 [23] Prospective G1 11 18.5 SD 3.3 F Class II/ OJ > 5   Miniscrews NiTi coil 100 g T1 before ttt
G2 11 21.8 SD 7.9 F   TPA and HG Sliding mechanics (canine) then loop mechanics (incisors) T2 after ttt
Solem et al. 2013 [22] Prospective G1 11 20 to 29 mean 24 years 20F/4M Angle class I/ severe dentoalveolar protrusion 0.016 × 0.022″ SS/0.018″ slot Miniplates Elastic-chain T1 before ttt
G2 13 0.016 × 0.022″ SS/0.018″ slot TPAs Elastic-chain (canine) then intrusion retraction loop (incisors) T2 after ttt
Upadhyay et al. 2008 [21] Prospective G1 15 14.5 to 22.3 mean 17.2 10F/5M Angle class I/ class II div. 1 with severe OJ 0.017 × 0.025″ SS/0.022″ ROTH Miniscrews NiTi coil 150 g T1 before retraction
G2 15 11F/4M   Nance, HG, Bond7   T2 after retraction
Upadhyay et al. 2008 [17] RCT G1 20 17.6years F OJ = <5/Crowding < 3.5 0.017 × 0.025″ SS/0.022″ ROTH Miniscrews NiTi coil 150 g T1 before retraction
G2 20 17.3years F 0.017 × 0.025″ SS/0.022″ ROTH TPA, HG, Bond7   T2 after space closure
Xu et al. 2010 [19] RCT G1 32 12.6 SD 1.1 20F/12M Class I or II 0.022″ MBT 32 HG/27 TPA Active laceback T1 before ttt
G2 32 12.7 SD 1.2 19F/12M 0.022″ MBT 31 HG/21 TPA Active laceback T2 after ttt
  1. G group, Aux auxiliaries, T time, RCT randomized controlled trial, OJ overjet, ttt treatment, SS stainless steel, SL self-ligation, HG headgear, TPA transpalatal arch