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Table 2 Comparison of the changes in CBCT variables between T0 and T1 in each group

From: Control of anterior segment using an antero-posterior lingual sliding retraction system: a preliminary cone-beam CT study

Variables C-group (n = 18) p value AP-group (n = 16) p value
T0 SD T1 SD T0 SD T1 SD
Three-dimensional tooth movement
 Maxillary central incisors
  U1CP X 4.94 1.78 4.79 1.81 0.383 4.71 1.92 4.58 1.79 0.563
  U1CP Y − 9.36 3.51 − 5.34 3.36 0.000*** − 7.64 5.34 − 3.83 4.26 0.000***
  U1CP Z − 80.57 2.39 − 80.37 2.45 0.188 − 85.37 4.35 − 83.38 3.87 0.000***
  U1RP X 3.20 0.99 3.21 1.29 0.917 3.73 1.83 3.83 1.56 0.393
  U1RP Y 1.59 3.84 2.53 3.34 0.012* − 0.47 3.29 1.44 3.36 0.000***
  U1RP Z − 60.17 2.23 − 59.21 2.58 0.000*** − 63.37 3.78 − 61.61 3.64 0.000***
 Maxillary canines
  U3CP X 17.74 1.85 17.85 1.77 0.510 17.57 2.12 17.91 1.88 0.221
  U3CP Y 0.65 3.82 4.45 3.99 0.000*** 1.50 5.05 5.20 4.48 0.000***
  U3CP Z − 79.42 2.13 − 77.95 2.23 0.000*** − 83.53 3.67 − 81.51 3.59 0.000***
  U3RP X 13.43 1.77 13.59 1.72 0.270 14.70 1.47 15.14 1.51 0.053
  U3RP Y 6.59 3.30 7.71 2.63 0.000*** 5.48 2.94 6.34 3.22 0.017*
  U3RP Z − 54.77 1.76 − 52.81 1.71 0.000*** − 58.65 3.80 − 56.56 4.17 0.000***
 Maxillary first molars
 U6CP X 26.54 1.81 25.76 1.85 0.002** 25.72 2.07 26.72 2.05 0.747
 U6CP Y 21.54 3.59 20.08 3.12 0.000*** 19.88 4.52 19.43 4.30 0.261
 U6CP Z − 74.54 2.15 − 75.19 2.14 0.000*** − 79.46 2.83 − 78.47 2.71 0.004**
Alveolar bone level
 VABLl 1.29 0.29 1.36 0.25 0.186 1.70 0.59 1.38 0.61 0.007**
 VABLp 1.37 0.28 3.74 2.56 0.001** 1.46 0.47 3.01 1.22 0.000***
Root resorption
 ΔRL 23.62 1.28 22.96 1.59 0.003** 23.55 0.97 22.85 1.30 0.000***
  1. Paired t test was performed. The points of #11, 13, and 16 (right sides) were reflected over the X-axis (U1CP X′, U3CP X′, U6CP X′, respectively); mirror transformation of X-axis. At any point, therefore, outward displacement had a positive value and inward displacement had a negative value
  2. SD standard deviation, Group 1 C-lingual retractor group C-group, antero-posterior lingual retractor group AP-group, U1CP the maxillary central incisors cusp tip point, U1RP the maxillary central incisors root apex point, U3CP the maxillary canines cusp tip point, U3RP the maxillary canines root apex point, U6CP the maxillary mesiobuccal cusp tip point, X′ transverse direction (left: +, right: +), Y antero-posterior direction (mesial: −, distal: +), Z vertical direction (upward: +, downward: −), VABLl vertical alveolar bone level on labial side (distance from CEJ to alveolar crest), VABLp vertical alveolar bone level on palatal side, RL root length (distance from incisor tip to root apex point)
  3. *p < 0.05; **p < 0.01; ***p < 0.001