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Table 3 Paired t test for the comparison of the predicted (TS) and achieved (T1) torque

From: Movement of anterior teeth using clear aligners: a three-dimensional, retrospective evaluation

    Mean difference Standard error p 95% confidence interval
Lower bound Upper bound
Upper arch (n = 36) Left side Canine 0.21* 0.52 0.697 − 1.26 0.85
Lateral incisor − 1.57 0.116
Central incisor − 1.86 0.063
Right side Canine − 1.0 0.318
Lateral incisor − 0.44* 0.5 0.437 − 1.59 0.70
Central incisor − 0.73 0.466
Lower arch (n = 27) Left side Canine 0.21* 0.67 0.753 − 1.16 1.59
Lateral incisor 0.03* 0.72 0.965 − 1.46 1.52
Central incisor − 0.71* 0.66 0.289 − 2.07 0.64
Right side Canine − 0.67* 0.91 0.472 − 2.54 1.21
Lateral incisor 0.38* 0.91 0.683 − 1.50 2.25
Central incisor 0.25* 0.55 0.654 − 0.89 1.39
  1. Torque values are expressed as degrees (°)
  2. *Paired sample t test
  3. †Z statistics from Wilcoxon signed-rank test