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Table 1 Characteristics of the studies included in the qualitative analysis

From: Post-orthodontic lower incisor inclination and gingival recession—a systematic review

Author Publication year Language Study design Sample size Control group Type of patients and/or subgroups Mean age Sex distribution (M/F) Follow-up time Details on ortho treatment Primary outcome measure Method of assessment for primary outcome Secondary outcome Method of assessment for secondary outcome Primary outcome result Secondary outcome result
Allais and Melsen [20] 2003 English Retrospective 150 Yes Adult 33 years (22–65) 36/114 Debonding Fixed appliance with proclination Recession (mm), plaque score, gingival index, biotype Dental casts and photo Incisor proclination Arch length changes on dental casts, IMPA on cephalograms Incidence of recession is higher for treated than that for control for teeth 41 and 32, not 42 and 31 (differences within the method error) Mean arch length increase of 3.4 ± 2.6 mm
Villard and Patcas [22] 2015 English retrospective 50 Yes Adult with or without premolar extractions 23.8 ± 2.8 extraction group; 24.8 ± 6.1 non-extraction group N.S. 3 years after debonding Fixed appliance, 24 extraction and 26 non-extraction Crowding, clinical crown length casts IMPA, distance of L1 and B from perpendicular to MP passing through Pg cephalograms Clinical crown length increase of 0.4–0.8 mm in non-extraction group and of 1.1–0.4 in extraction group Weak correlation between incisor position and clinical crown length, no correlation for canines
  1. N.S. not specified