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Table 1 Factors affecting the expression and regulation of osteopontin

From: Role of osteopontin in bone remodeling and orthodontic tooth movement: a review

Expression and upregulation of OPN Downregulation of OPN
Transcription factors—Runx2 and Osterix [68] cGMP-dependent protein kinase [2]
Inorganic phosphate [69] Bisphosphonates [2]
Systematic conditions—hypophosphatemia, hypocalcemia [2]
Hormones—glucocorticoids, [70]
1,25-dihydroxyvitamin D3, [70] parathyroid hormone [14]
ERK inhibitor
Vitamins—retinoic acid [70]  
Inflammatory mediators—TNFα, IL-1β, TGFβ [14]  
Mechanical stress