Skip to main content

Advertisement

Springer Nature is making SARS-CoV-2 and COVID-19 research free. View research | View latest news | Sign up for updates

Table 3 Quality assessment of the included RCT studies

From: Clinical effectiveness of Invisalign® orthodontic treatment: a systematic review

Author-year of publication Study design Sequence generation (selection bias) Allocation concealment (selection bias) Blinding of participants and personnel (performance bias) Blinding of outcome assessors (detection bias) Incomplete outcome data (attrition bias) Selective reporting (reporting bias) Other sources of bias Overall risk
Hennessy et al. [18] (2016) RCT Aj: Low risk
Sfj: Although not explicitly stated, sequence generation is very likely due to reference of random picking up of sealed opaque envelopes
Aj: Low risk
Sfj: Sealed opaque, envelopes
Aj: Low risk
Sfj: Incomplete blinding, but the review authors judge that the outcome is not likely to be influenced by lack of blinding
Aj: Low risk
Sfj: No blinding of outcome assessment, but the review authors judge that the outcome measurement is not likely to be influenced by lack of blinding
Aj: Low risk
Sfj: Missing outcome data balanced in numbers across intervention groups, with similar reasons for missing data across groups
Aj: Low risk
Sfj: The study protocol is available and all of the study’s pre-specified outcomes that are of interest in the review have been reported in the pre-specified way
Aj: Low risk
Sfj: The study appears to be free of other sources of bias
Low
Li et al. [19] (2015) RCT Aj: Low risk
Sfj: Use of a computer random number generator
Aj: Low risk
Sfj: Sequentially numbered, opaque, sealed envelopes
Aj: Low risk
Sfj: Blinding ensured and unlikely that the blinding could have been broken
Aj: Low risk
Sfj: Blinding of outcome assessment ensured and unlikely that the blinding could have been broken
Aj: Low risk
Sfj: No missing outcome data
Aj: Low risk
Sfj: The study protocol is available and all of the study’s pre-specified outcomes that are of interest in the review have been reported in the pre-specified way
Aj: Low risk
Sfj: The study appears to be free of other sources of bias
Low
Bollen et al. [20] (2003) RCT Aj: Low risk
Sfj: Reference to a random number list
Aj: Low risk
Sfj: Randomization schedule based on a list of random numbers performed by a calibrated investigator, unaware of the treatment plan
Aj: Low risk
Sfj: Incomplete blinding, but the review authors judge that the outcome is not likely to be influenced by lack of blinding
Aj: Low risk
Sfj: No blinding of outcome assessment, but the review authors judge that the outcome measurement is not likely to be influenced by lack of blinding
Aj: Low risk
Sfj: Missing outcome data balanced in numbers across intervention groups, with similar reasons for missing data across groups
Aj: Low risk
Sfj: The study protocol is available and all of the study’s pre-specified outcomes that are of interest in the review have been reported in the pre-specified way
Aj: Low risk
Sfj: The study appears to be free of other sources of bias
Low
  1. Aj: authors’ judgment, Sfj support for judgment