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Table 4 Quality assessment of the included prospective and retrospective studies

From: Clinical effectiveness of Invisalign® orthodontic treatment: a systematic review

Author-year of publication Study design and defined control group Adequately defined patient material Defined diagnosis and end points Diagnostic reliability and reproducibility tests Blinded outcome assessment Overall risk
Solano-Mendoza et al. [21] (2016) + (prospective) + + + Moderate
Buschang et al. [26] (2015) + (prospective) + + + Moderate
Castroflorio et al. [22] (2013) + (prospective) High
Pavoni et al. [23] (2011) + (prospective) + + + Moderate
Kravitz et al. [5] (2009) + (prospective) + + High
Kravitz et al. [24] (2008) + (prospective) + + High
Baldwin et al. [27] (2008) - (prospective, uncontrolled) + + + High
Vlaskalic and Boyd [25] (2002) + (prospective) + High
Gu et al. [28] (2017) + (retrospective) + + + + Moderate
Khosravi et al. [29] (2017) + (retrospective) + + + Moderate
Houle et al. [30] (2016) + (retrospective) + + + Moderate
Ravera et al. [31] (2016) + (retrospective) + + + + Moderate
Duncan et al. [32] (2015) + (retrospective) + + + Moderate
Grünheid et al. [33] (2015) + (retrospective) + + + + Moderate
Simon et al. [34] (2014) + (retrospective) + + High
Krieger et al. [35] (2012) + (retrospective) + + + Moderate
Krieger et al. [36] (2011) + (retrospective) + + + Moderate
Kuncio et al. [37] (2007) + (retrospective) + + + + Moderate
Djeu et al. [38] (2005) + (retrospective) + + + Moderate