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Table 5 Post-hoc tests for Ra (average roughness)

From: Comparative evaluation of enamel surface roughness after debonding using four finishing and polishing systems for residual resin removal—an in vitro study

Dependent variable Comparison group Compared with Mean difference (unit-μm) Std. error p value
Baseline Ra Group 1 Group 2 − 0.09 0.11 0.857
Group 3 0.04 0.11 0.983
Group 4 0.02 0.11 0.997
Group 2 Group 3 0.13 0.11 0.654
Group 4 0.11 0.11 0.756
Group 3 Group 4 − 0.02 0.11 0.998
Post polishing Ra Group 1 Group 2 0.19 0.16 0.627
Group 3 1.37* 0.16 < 0.001
Group 4 − 1.25* 0.16 < 0.001
Group 2 Group 3 1.17* 0.16 < 0.001
Group 4 − 1.45* 0.16 < 0.001
Group 3 Group 4 − 2.63* 0.16 < 0.001
Difference Ra Group 1 Group 2 0.28 0.18 0.417
Group 3 1.33* 0.18 < 0.001
Group 4 − 1.28* 0.18 < 0.001
Group 2 Group 3 1.04* 0.18 < 0.001
Group 4 − 1.56* 0.18 < 0.001
Group 3 Group 4 − 2.61* 0.18 < 0.001
  1. Ra average roughness, μm micrometer, p value probability value, *statistical significance