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Table 2 Description of 3D soft tissue landmarks in the study

From: Three-dimensional soft tissue changes according to skeletal changes after mandibular setback surgery by using cone-beam computed tomography and a structured light scanner

LandmarksDefinition
Exocanthion (Ex)The outer corner of the eye fissure where the eyelids meet
Endocanthion (En)The inner corner of the eye fissure where the eyelids meet
Nasal ala (Al dev/ctl)The most lateral point on each alar contour on deviated side/contralateral side
Pronasale (Pn)The most protruded point of the apex nasi
Subnasale (Sn)The midpoint of the angle at the columella base where the lower border of the nasal septum and the surface of the upper lip met
A’ point (A’)The deepest point in the soft tissue contour of the upper lip
Labrale superius (Ls)The midpoint of the upper vermilion line
Stomion superius (Stms)The lowest point of upper lip vermilion
Cheilion (Ch dev/ctl)The point located at each labial commissure on deviated side/contralateral side
Stomion inferius (Stmi)The highest point of lower lip vermilion
Labrale inferius (Li)The midpoint of the lower vermilion line
B’ point (B’)The most deepest point from lateral view, on the facial midline,between the lower lip and chin
Pogonion’ (Pog’)The most anterior midpoint of chin
Menton’ (Me’)The lowest median landmark on the lower border of the mandible
Zygomatic point (Zy dev/ctl)The point where a vertical line from exocanthion and a horizontal line from nasal ala meet on deviated side/contralateral side
Cheek point (Ck dev/ctl)The point where a vertical line from exocanthion and a horizontal line from cheilion meet on deviated side/contralateral side