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Table 4 Changes in hard tissue and soft tissue landmarks on CBCT images

From: Three-dimensional soft tissue changes according to skeletal changes after mandibular setback surgery by using cone-beam computed tomography and a structured light scanner

LandmarksΔx (T2–T1)Δy (T2–T1)Δz (T2–T1)
MeanSDp valueMeanSDp valueMeanSDp value
Hard tissue
 Ii− 2.611.71.000***− 4.961.89.000***0.821.00.040*
 Lc dev− 2.321.58.000***− 5.091.61.000***0.791.07.026*
 Lc ctl− 2.721.89.000***− 6.181.70.000***0.981.35.032*
 Id− 2.431.81.000***− 6.211.92.000***1.041.61.043*
 B− 2.411.79.000***− 5.802.01.000***0.991.25.030*
 Pog− 2.492.20.003**− 5.692.72.000***1.321.57.019*
 Me− 2.422.18.004**− 5.813.05.000***1.201.45.021*
 Mf dev− 1.951.57.001**− 4.982.42.000***0.310.81.268
 Mf ctl− 1.821.67.003**− 6.412.29.000***0.720.72.027*
Soft tissue
 Nose-related
  Al dev− 0.090.21.301− 0.621.40.1840.080.32.524
  Al ctl0.020.41.930− 0.250.91.2970.070.27.532
  Pn− 0.040.18.5890.030.28.906− 0.020.22.738
  Sn− 0.380.41.106− 0.090.73.7020.041.01.889
 Lip-related
  A’− 0.500.80.056− 0.180.99.5380.341.55.488
  Ls− 0.801.13.047*− 1.090.81.028*0.070.79.755
  Stms− 0.811.16.042*− 1.121.10.014*0.811.53.058
  Ch dev− 2.221.87.008**− 1.922.03.027*0.321.03.506
  Ch ctl− 0.951.01.031*− 2.891.86.011**0.641.51.179
  Stmi− 0.841.18.036*− 4.091.60.000***0.881.33.125
  Li− 0.991.21.036*− 4.241.72.000***0.811.24.066
 Chin-related
  B’− 1.181.27.033*− 4.242.08.000***0.941.31.043*
  Pog’− 1.591.30.015*− 4.372.43.000***1.211.45.019*
  Me’− 1.791.31.009**− 2.942.76.003**1.091.35.030*
 Cheek-related
  Zy dev− 0.170.32.4430.211.22.5980.110.34.291
  Zy ctl− 0.090.52.430− 0.231.06.469− 0.020.37.925
  Ck dev− 0.201.28.593− 1.181.71.041*0.111.20.797
  Ck ctl0.161.24.575− 0.812.37.3350.611.67.316
  1. Δx, Δy, and Δz means changes in transverse axis, anteroposterior axis, and vertical axis, respectively
  2. Paired t test was performed. SD indicates standard deviation; *p < 0.05; **p < 0.01; ***p < 0.001