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Table 3 Risk of bias of the included non-randomized clinical trials with the ROBINS-I tool

From: What effect does functional appliance treatment have on the temporomandibular joint? A systematic review with meta-analysis

  Bias due to confounding Bias in selection of participants into the study Bias in classification of interventions Bias due to deviations from intended interventions Bias due to missing data Bias in measurement of outcomes Bias in selection of the reported result Overall bias
Arat et al. [38] Serious No information Low No information Low Moderate Low Serious
Chavan et al. [42] Serious Low Low No information Low Moderate Low Serious
Chintakanon and Chintakanon et al. [43, 44] Serious Low Low Moderate Low Moderate Low Serious
Croft 1999 [45] Critical Serious Low Serious Low Moderate Low Critical
Elfeky et al. [46] Moderate Serious Low No information Moderate Moderate Low Serious