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Table 3 Risk of bias of included articles

From: Pain level between clear aligners and fixed appliances: a systematic review

Domain bias Description
 Bias due to confounding Assessment of baseline in of certain number of participants by age and malocclusion description
Assessment of the method of pain evaluation
Assessment of time of evaluation
 Bias in selection of participants into the study Assessment of participants eligibility criteria
Evaluation of eligible participants exclusion or difference between the follow-up period
 Bias in classification of interventions Assessment of the intervention status—use of the aligner was not properly described (change of the aligner)
Use of additional orthodontic methods to correct malocclusion (ex: MI, elastic)
Use of analgesic
 Bias due to deviations from intended interventions Evaluation of the systematic differences between the intervention (group that used the aligner) and the comparison group when there is no information about the evaluation of the pain
Use of analgesic for pain relief during orthodontic treatment
 Bias due to missing data In the event of loss of follow-up, incomplete collection of data and exclusion of participants from the analysis
 Bias in measurement of the outcomes When assessments of pain perception were not reported or were measured with error
When not all the measures established in the different treatment times are presented
When the use of analgesic is mentioned or not
 Bias in selection of the reported results Selective report of results when the effect of all measurements of results has not been fully reported