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Table 6 Risk of bias of the included studies, according to the ROBINS-I tool

From: Pain level between clear aligners and fixed appliances: a systematic review

Domains
  Pre-intervention Intervention Post-intervention  
Author Bias due to confounding Bias in selection of participants for the study Bias in classifying interventions Bias due to deviations from intended interventions Bias due to missing data Bias to measuring outcomes Bias in selecting reported results Overall risk of bias judgment
Almasoud (2018) Low Low Low Moderate Low Low Low Moderate
Fujiyama et al. (2014) Moderate Low Moderate Low Low Low Moderate Moderate
Mais-Damois et al. (2015) Moderate Low Low Moderate Low Low Moderate Moderate
Miller et al. (2007) Moderate High High Moderate Low Low Low High
Shalish et al. (2007) Moderate Moderate Moderate Moderate Low Low Low Moderate