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Table 3 Main dentofacial characteristics or types of malocclusions of interest reported in the included studies

From: Is there a relationship between malocclusion and bullying? A systematic review

Author, year, country Chin Lips, Lip incompetence or coverage Teeth Space between teeth, missing teeth Crowding Deep bite, > 5 mm, > 7 mm Prominent anterior teeth, incisal prominence, incisor relationship Maxillary overjet, > 4 mm, > 6 mm, > 9 mm Cross bite, scissors bite Retrognathic mandible Prominent mandibular anterior teeth Prognathic mandible Anterior open bite Gummy smile Cephalometric measurements
Shaw et al, 1980 [22], UK _ +, _ + _ + _, _, _ +, +, + +, _, _, _ _, _ _ _ _ _ _ _
Helm et al, 1985 [23],Denmark _ _, _ + +, _ + +, +, + +, +, + +, _, +, + +, + _ + _ + _ _
Rwakatema et al, 2006 [24], Tanzania _ _ + _ _ _, _, _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _
Badran et al., 2010 [21], Jordan _ _, _ + +, + + +, _, _ +, +, + +, _, _, _ +, _ _ + _ + _ _
Seehra et al., 2011 [16], UK + +, + + +, + + +, _, _ + ,+, + +, +, +, + +, + + + + + _ +
Al-Bitar et al. 2013 [15], Jordan + +, + + +, + + +, _, _ +,+,+ +, _, _, _ _, _ + + + + + _
Agel et al., 2014 [17], East UK _ +, + + _ _ _ +,+,+ +, _, +, + _ _ _ _ _ _ _
Chikaod et al., 2017 [25], Nigeria + +, + + +, + + +, _, _ +,+,+ +, _, _, _ _, _ + + + + + _
Julca-Ching et al. 2019 [26], Peru _ _, _ + +, + _ _ +,+,+ +, _, _, _ _, _ _ _ _ + _ _
  1. + Reported, _ not reported
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