Skip to main content

Table 4 Results of methodological quality assessment of included studies, according to Fowkes and Fulton criteria

From: Is there a relationship between malocclusion and bullying? A systematic review

Guideline Checklist   Shaw et al., 1980 Helm et al., 1985 Rwakatema et al., 2006 Badran et al., 2010 Seehra et al., 2011 Al-Bitar et al., 2013 Agel et al., 2014 Chikaoki et al., 2017 Julca-Ching et al. 2019
Study design appropriate to objective? Objective Common design 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0
Prevalence Cross-sectional NA NA NA NA NA NA NA NA NA
Prognosis Cohort NA NA NA NA NA NA NA NA NA
Treatment Controlled trial NA NA NA NA NA NA NA NA NA
Cause Cohort, case-control, cross-sectional 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0
Completeness? Compliance   NA + NA NA NA NA NA NA NA
Dropouts   0 0 NA NA NA NA NA NA NA
Deaths   NA NA NA NA NA NA NA NA NA
Missing data   0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0
Distorting influences? Extraneous treatments   NA NA NA NA NA NA NA NA NA
Contamination   NA NA NA NA NA NA NA NA NA
Changes over time   NA NA NA NA NA NA NA NA NA
Confounding factors   0 ++ ++ 0 0 0 0 ++ ++
Distortion reduced by analysis   ++ 0 ++ 0 0 0 ++ ++ ++
Summary questions Bias—Are the results erroneously biased in a certain direction? YES YES YES NO NO NO NO YES YES
Confounding—Are there any serious confounding or other distorting influences? YES NO YES NO NO YES YES YES YES
Chance—Is it likely that the results occurred by chance? YES NO NO NO NO NO NO NO NO
\