Skip to main content

Table 5 Evidence profile: relationship between malocclusion and bullying

From: Is there a relationship between malocclusion and bullying? A systematic review

Patient or population: Children and adolescents
Exposure/intervention: malocclusion
Comparison: with normal occlusion
Outcome: Bullying
No. of participants (studies) Relative effect (95% CI) Certainty What happens
4.953
(9 observational studies)
Not estimable
VERY LOW a,b,c
aVery serious problems for “Risk of bias”: Seven, of the nine, studies included in the present systematic review were judged with non-solid methodologies, with results erroneously biased in a certain direction and/or any serious confounding or other distorting influences.
bSerious problems for “Indirectness”: Shaw et al., Helm et al., Chikaod et al., Al-Bitar et al., and Rwakatema et al. applied self-report questionnaires to evaluate malocclusion, without clinical exam.
CVery serious problems in “Other considerations”: Seven, of the nine, studies could have any serious confounding or other distorting influences.
  1. CI confidence interval
\