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Table 1 Characteristics of the studies included in the current systematic review

From: Stability of anterior open bite treatment with molar intrusion using skeletal anchorage: a systematic review and meta-analysis

Article author/year Participants Methods Treatment time/follow-up time Rated outcomes Treatment performed/study material Results Conclusion
Sample source Patients (n)/mean age (SD) in years
Statistical analysis Mandibular rotation/Applied force Effects on facial morphology Side effects
Scheffler et al/2014 [18] Private practice. Boone, NC 30/24.1 (± 10.7) years Lateral cephalometric analysis Intrusion period, 3.6–9.6 months
Total treatment period, 6–33 months
Overbite, Go-Gn/Sn, LAFH, U6-pp, L6-GoGn. U1-PP. L1-MP Pre and post treatment: miniplate, mini-implants and acrylic plate
L-shaped miniplate in the upper-back region
Multivariate regression Counterclockwise rotation: decrease of Go-Gn/Sn. After the 1st and 2nd year of treatment: there were changes/150 g per side Decreased LAFH (1 mm) after 1 and 2 years of follow-up. Lower molar extrusion, elongation of lower and upper incisors.
Fifteen and 22% of patients: recurrence after 1 and 2 years of follow-up
Posterior and upper intrusion may be satisfactory in moderately severe cases, but relapse (0.5 to 1.5 mm) is likely to occur.
Baek et al./2010 [15] Department of Orthodontics, Dental Hospital of Yonsei, Korea 9/ 23.7 years Lateral cephalometric analysis Treatment period 28.8 months. Mini-implants 5.4 months. Retention 41 months Overbite,SN-Go Me, AFH,U6-PP, L1-MP, U1-PP, Exodontia of premolars. Molar intrusion: mini-implants + elastomeric chain + rigid transpalatal arch Shapiro-Wilk;THE NEW; Pearson’s correlation Counterclockwise rotation: anterior facial height decreased by 2.53 mm/NR Decreased AFH (2.53 mm), stable profile after 1 year of treatment. 22.88% of the vertical distance between maxillary molars and palatal plane and 17% of overbite after 3 years of treatment. If an appropriate retention method is applied during the 1st year of treatment, posttreatment stability is guaranteed.
Sugawara et al./2002 [14] Department of Orthodontics Tohoku University, Japan 9 / 21.1 years Lateral cephalometric analysis. Panoramic RX. Dental analysis 14.9 months/12 months Overbite, MP/FH, LAFH, U6-PP, L6-MP. L1-MP, U1-PP L-shaped Miniplate (SAS) in the lower molars. Orthodontic micro screws + force application with elastic modules Paired t test Counterclockwise rotation: FH/MP decreased by 1.3°/FH/MP increased by 0.4° after 1 year of follow-up/NR Decreased ALFH and lip opening. Anteroposterior mandibular relationship better. Stable profile after 1 year of follow-up 27.2% of relapse in the first molars and 30.3% in second molars SAS is effective for the treatment of open bite. Overcorrection is required
Deguchi et al./2011 [19] Tohoku University, Japan 30/24.3 (± 5.9) Lateral cephalometric analysis Treatment time:3 years and 2 years of follow-up Overbite, MP/SN, U6-PP, L6-MP, LAFH. L1-MP,U1-PP Miniimplants: exo of anterior premolars and elastics, sharp curve arches or edgewise multiloop technique. Sectional steel bows of 0.016 × 0.022. Extraoral arch of high pull Mann Whitney, Wilcoxon Counterclockwise rotation: 3° of increase of mandibular plane angle and 3 mm of increase in the vertical length of N-Me./NR Significant difference between T1 and T2 in the labial protrusion,decreased in facial convexitybut group IA had the greatest change. 22% of superior molar relapse and 13% overbite after 2 years in the intervention group (AI) The group with mini-implants presented greater relapse
Marzouk et al./2015 [20] Department of Orthodontics, Alexandria University, Egypt 26/ 22.5 years Lateral cephalometric analysis Intrusion period, 5–10 (months)
Treatment period, 24–28 (months)
Overbite, N-S-Gn, U6-pp, L6-MP,L1-MP, U1-PP Miniplate and upper modified Hawley plate. Titanium miniplate fixed with three screws and double transpalatal bar test; intraclass correlation coefficient, analysis of variance, Pearson’s correlation Counterclockwise rotation: overbite correction / 450 g per side N-Me decreased 3.64 mm after 4 years of treatment. Decreased facial convexity of 2.36° and stability after 4 years. Relapse of 10.20% in the upper molars in the 1st year after treatment and 13.37% 4 years after treatment. Molar intrusion with zygomatic miniplates appears to be stable 4 years after treatment.
Lee et al/2008 [21] Department of Orthodontics, Yonsei University, Korea 11/ 23.3 years Lateral cephalometric analysis Treatment period 5.4 (months)
Average maintenance period 17.4 months
MeGo/SN, Overbite, AFH, U6-PP, L1-MP, U1-PP Mini-implants + elastomeric chain, transpalatal bar for molar intrusion Descriptive statistics, paired t test, and Pearson’s correlation Counterclockwise rotation, anterior facial decrease. Increased facial height of 0.18° after 17.4 months/NR AFH decrease, mov. of Pogônio 2.17 mm. AFH increase after 17, 4 months in contention period 10.36% relapse for molar intrusion. 18.10% for overbite after 17.4 months Upper molar intrusion with mini screws in adults is efficient for open bite correction with good stability.
  1. NR no reported
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