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Table 4 Summary of findings table according to the GRADE approach

From: Duration of orthodontic treatment with fixed appliances in adolescents and adults: a systematic review with meta-analysis

  Anticipated absolute effects
(95% CI)
  
Outcome
Studies (patients)
Adolescents Difference in adults Quality of the evidence (GRADE)b What happens with adults
Full Tx duration
1010 patients (6 studies)
30.1 months a 0.4 months more
(0.7 months less to 1.4 months more)
very lowc
due to bias
Little to no difference in overall treatment duration
Duration of PDC alignment
30 patients (1 study)
3.0 months 3.8 months more
(1.4 to 6.2 months more)
very lowc,d
due to bias, imprecision
Might be associated with longer alignment of PDCs
Duration of 1st molar distalization
51 patients (1 study)
7.4 months 0.1 month more
(1.7 months less to 1.8 months more)
very lowd,e
due to bias, imprecision
Little to no difference in duration of 1st molar distalization
Duration of canine retraction
18 patients (1 study)
4.0 months 2.0 months more
(0.5 month less to 4.5 months more)
very lowc,d
due to bias, imprecision
Little to no difference in duration of canine retraction
  1. Intervention: comprehensive orthodontic treatment with fixed appliances/population: adolescents or adult patients with any kind of malocclusion/setting: university clinics, private practices (Brazil, Germany, Italy, Malaysia, Nepal, South Korea, USA)
  2. CI confidence interval, GRADE Grading of Recommendations Assessment, Development and Evaluation, Tx treatment, PDC palatally displaced canine, mo month
  3. aResponse in the control group is based on random-effects meta-analysis of the adolescent groups of included studies
  4. bStarts from “high”
  5. cDowngraded by two to three levels for bias due to the inclusion of non-randomized studies with serious risk of bias
  6. dDowngraded by one level for imprecision due to the inclusion of an inadequate sample
  7. eDowngraded by one level for bias due to the inclusion of non-randomized studies with moderate risk of bias